PLURALS Nouns are found in the singular or plural form. 1. Most words simply take –S bedrooms kitchens gardens swimming pools houses tennis courts 2. If the word ends in ch, boxes dishes buses gases churches glasses boys holidays donkeys keys guys monkeys baby – babies sky - skies country – countries try - tries party - parties calf – calves shelf – shelves knife – knives thief – thieves loaf – loaves wolf – wolves chief - chiefs cliff - cliffs roof – roofs echoes tomatoes heroes tornadoes potatoes volcanoes banjos photos kilos radios pianos tobaccos igloos zoos sh, s, ss or x then add es 3. If the word ends with a vowel + -y, then add an –s 4. If the word ends with a consonant + -y, then drop the -y and add –ies. 5. If the word ends with –f or –fe, then drop the –f and add –ves. BUT: 6. If the word ends with an –o, then add –es. 7. SOME words ending with an –o; simply add –s. 8. If the word ends in –oo, simply add cuckoos –s. 9. If the word ends in –eau, then add an –s or –x. plateaus plateaux tableaus tableaux es or replace the –us with an –i. cactus cactuses cacti syllabus syllabuses syllabi thesaurus thesauruses thesauri 11. Some words, usually names of animals, keep the same form in the singular and plural form. aircraft fish series buck moose sheep deer reindeer 12. Some nouns always take a singular form because they are uncountable. advice coffee information parking baggage gold knowledge tea bread Hair paper weather 13. Some words appear only in plural form. clothes goods measles pants police scissors trousers earnings information mumps pliers riches stairs tweezers earrings mathematics news politics savings thanks 14. Some words change in the plural form. child - children goose - geese mouse - mice woman – women die - dice louse - lice ox - oxen foot - feet man - men tooth - teeth 15. In compound nouns, the last word is usually given the plural. boy-friends break-ins Travel-agents 16. In compound nouns, the last word is usually given the plural. brothers-in-law lookers-on hangers-on runners-up ladies-in-waiting sisters-in-law 17. Abbreviations and initials are made MPs pgs VIPs 10. If a word ends in –us, add either – plural by adding –s.