Chapter 2, Section 1 Our English Heritage (32-37) Main Idea: Science and the influence of reason led to new innovations in political thought. I. What Influenced Colonial Government (33-35) A. Political and legal traditions of Eng. and ideas from the Enlightenment are the basis of many rights today. B. The English brought with them a history of limited and representative government. New ideas about law, society, and people’s rights. C. Monarch- A King or Queen D. Magna Carta- 1215 1.) Magna Carta- Upheld rights of landowners (nobles) giving them certain rights. 2.) Limited the power of King/Queen 3.) English Nobles forced King John to sign it. E. Parliament-1300’s 1.) Legislature- A lawmaking body 2.) Parliament- England’s lawmaking body ***Removed King James II from throne. This peaceful transfer of power was called Glorious Revolution. From then on no one ruler had more power than legislature!!!*** F. Parliament drew up the English Bill of Rights 1. Restricted the monarch’s power to raise taxes, raise Army, create special courts 2. Guaranteed: - Free Speech, Fair Jury, No Cruel and Unusual Punishment G. In early days, England had NO written laws. People created their own rules that became custom. Courts developed and judges followed these customs. H. Judges used precedents 1. Precedents- Rulings in an earlier case that are similar I. Common Law- System of law based on precedent. ***Our laws about property, contracts, and personal injury are based on English common law!*** II. Philosophical Influences A. John Locke (1632-1704) political philosopher that influenced Jefferson. 1. Locke saw government as a social contract between the people and the rulers. 2. Natural Rights- Locke argued people are born free, equal, and independent. 3. People give up certain freedoms to obtain certain protections from gov. B. Jean-Jacques Rosseau (1712-1778) 1. French Philosopher 2. Wrote The Social Contract 3. Social Contract – “man is born free, yet everywhere he is found in chains”. 4. Many in Europe lived under oppressive governments and he felt people alone had the right to determine how to be governed. C. Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) 1. Developed idea of Separation of Powers 2. Divide gov. into different parts to balance power and not threaten individual rights. **** Locke’s ideas on social contract and natural rights along with Montesquieu’s separation of powers heavily influenced the Decl. of Indep. and the Const. III. Colonial Traditions of Self Government (3637) A. Colony- group of people in one place but ruled by a parent country someplace else. B. Colonists remained loyal to England even after they left for America. C. Charter- Written document granting land and authority to set up local governments. D. Jamestown, Virginia- The first permanent North American colony founded in 1607. 1. Virginia Company’s charter promised colonists of Jamestown the same liberties as in England. 2. Colonists chose representatives called burgesses to meet with the governor. 3. House of Burgesses- marked the beginning of self government in the colonies. **** 1st representative assembly or legislature E. Before arriving in Plymouth, Pilgrims drew up the Mayflower Compact. 1. Mayflower Compact- a written plan to set up direct democracy when they arrived in America. 2. Compact- An agreement, or contract among people. Majority rules. Citizens hold town meetings to address local issues and problems 20:13 Jamestown/Plymouth video IV. Early Colonial Governments (37) A. Eventually, English colonies all along east coast followed the examples of the Mayflower Compact and the House of Burgesses. B. Each colony had a governor, elected legislature, modeled after the English Parliament. C. The Colonists took on more power over time. ***Colonists grew used to making their own decisions, while the King and Parliament were preoccupied in England…*** Mini Quiz!!! Green Day-Oasis Remix 1. “A law making body”…? 2. What is a monarch? What country had one? 3. What was the English Parliament? 4. Did England have written laws? How did people know what the laws were? 5. “System of law based on precedents”? 6. The first form of self government in the colonies was called what? Where was it located?