• Things to Get:
– Notebook page 106
• Things to Do:
– Opener:
• Review of Plot
Structure (Freytag’s
– Class work:
• Notes: Technical
Elements and Stages
– TVG: Scene Analysis
• Set design
• Script Composition:
Part Two
– Exit Slip:
• Did you learn about the
technical elements of
drama today?
Opener – page 106
• Graph the following digital short on Freytag’s Pyramid.
Technical Elements of Drama
The technical elements of drama add
expression and enjoyment in the theatrical world.
• The painted pieces of a stage that suggest a
location, time period, or the setting of the play
• Made of flats, painted canvas covered frames.
• Some theaters use flats with curtains, wood,
cardboard, Styrofoam, paper mache and a
variety of materials; creativity is the key
Is that why you can hear actors talk on stage?
• Most scripts call for sound effects or mood music. If not a
director or sound designer may create music for mood to be
played before, during or after a performance.
• In today’s theater, hearing the play is important. Microphones
must be managed from a sound booth. Knowing how to run a
mixer board and understanding amplification are important
skills needed by sound designers/runners.
Are those the yellow things on the left?
• Create a visual image for the audience based on the needs of the
playwright, directors, actors
• Create mood, time, place
• Change the colors of costume or enhances the colors of the
• Adds to the color and vividness of the set, bringing it out of the
dark and into the imagination of the audience.
• Lighting designers are hired to work with the director to design
the show. They need to have a working knowledge of electricity
and technology because most lighting is computerized.
_Make Up____
Does this make people look better?
• Enhances the natural features of the face so that lighting does
not “wash out” the color of the face.
• Creates the character
• Special Effects make-up can be used; putty can be used to build
up noses, create scars; fake blood can enhance a look; a twentyyear old person can be made-up to look eighty-five; hair lines
can be “soaped out” to create a bald spot or receding hairline.
• Works with the lighting and costumes to complete the effect
needed to communicate character, time, place, setting to the
What are those people wearing?
• Create the overall feel of character, time, setting, place
• Add visual communication to the audience.
• Define the type of character based on the style and color of the
• Dresses, suits, wigs, dance attire, and vintage clothing can be
used on stage
• Often, costumes are designed and built for performances.
• Costume designers work with the director to design the overall
look for the play. A set of seamstresses and tailors make the
costumes and then fit them to the actors and actresses.
What are these things?
• _Set Props__ - items that are stationary on the stage; i.e.
sofas, chairs, tables, decorations, telephones
• _Hand Props - items that are carried on by characters to
enhance character, time, and setting or to be used for the action
of the play; i.e. handbags, tea sets, teacher dusters, luggage,
handkerchiefs, etc.
• Props are usually listed in the back of the script; however, some
scripts require you to read through them and list your own.
• Some props may be built and painted.
Viewing Analysis: Page 104
What effect do technical elements have on a scene?
• Task: Get out your Theater Viewing Guide
• Objective: Identify, describe, and explain the
effect of the technical elements of drama on a
• Clip Shown: Cell Block Tango from Chicago
The Stage:
The area where the actors perform
• Three types:
– Thrust:
• A thrust stage is where the acting area is extended
into the house with the audience seated on three
– Proscenium:
• A proscenium stage is the most common type of
stage. Walls that ‘frame’ the front of the acting area
are called the ‘proscenium arch.’
• Backstage is hidden by scenery, walls, or
proscenium. It is where the cast and crew can work
while being unseen by the audience. Dressing
rooms are located backstage. This area is also
called the “wings,” “offstage,” or “off.”
– Arena:
• An arena stage has the audience seated on all
sides. It’s also known as the theater in the round.
The Stage:
The area where the actors perform
• Stage Directions:
– standard or universal… why?
– These directions are used to indicate the
locations for actors, props, and scenery.
– They are written from the actor’s perspective
when standing on stage.
– Downstage is the area of the stage closest to
the audience while upstage is the area farthest
from the audience.
Stage Directions
Performance Assessment
Activity Explanation
• Day Two – Technical Elements – 25 minutes
• Add the technical elements of drama to the script you wrote last
• You must include all of the following:
– Sound –what will add to the presentation of your story?
– Lighting - adjust for the mood of your performance
– Costumes – These must convey the meaning of the story - make
sure you have these with you next class.
– Props – These must convey the meaning of the story - make
sure you have these with you next class.
• Revise your script to include the above information. Be sure it is
obvious where, when, and how these items and ideas will be used in
your performance.
Exit Slip
• 1) Identify the types of stages scene below: