Objectives: Students will learn to identify moderate
risks driving environments, space management,
roadway positions, turning rules, and parking
Topics covered are:
– Risk Assessment—determine roadway position and
establish vehicle speed
– Space Management and Lane Changes—utilize space
management concepts (search, evaluate, execute)
– Turnabouts and Parking—ability to select and safely
execute turnabouts and park
Risk Assessment
• Risk acceptance is a natural part of driving—risks are
always present and the compensation involves:
– Recognizing potential errors
– Making appropriate adjustments
• A driver often makes 50-60 decisions per minute in city
traffic driving
• Studies indicate that drivers who do not wear safety
belts tend to take more risks while driving than drivers
wearing seat belts
• Two factors that drivers cannot control in risk
management are:
– Roadway
– Environment
Space Management
• Before moving the vehicle—search—evaluate—and
execute—visibility, space and time are the drivers
best defenses against risks
It is better to back out of traffic than to back into
Drivers need space management because—they
often do not perceive the risks that are present and
they do not anticipate potential problems
SEEit (Search, Evaluate, and Execute In Time)—is a
space management system, a decision-making, and a
judgment level of the driving process
– Execute means to decide what to do, determine
options, look for escapes, and carry out your plan
Space Management
• Field of vision—the area around the vehicle that you
can see while looking straight ahead
You should look 20-30 seconds ahead of your car for
an open path of travel
You should signal at least 4 seconds before a turn-the correct steering for turns is push/pull slide (hand
to hand)
– When turning to the right, you should look at a target in
your path of travel
– The proper position to begin a right turn is 3 feet from the
Lane Change and Positions
• The red vehicle (Car A) should turn into Lane One.
Always turn into the lane that is closest to you.
• The diagram represents an Open Zone
for the red car.
The Car A in the middle lane has a closed white zone
• The diagram in the middle lane has a changing
front zone. The RED car was “cut off” by the blue
car, so he needs to take an evasive action.
• In the diagram, the RED car (A) should change lanes
to the right in order to avoid the silver car.
Mirror Settings
• Always check and adjust mirror settings, whether using the
traditional or contemporary mirror settings to frame the entire
rear window before you move the vehicle – when you get in!
• When using contemporary mirror settings,
space 4 would be seen in the rear view mirror
• When setting the driver’s side view mirror using the
contemporary setting, the driver should
– Lean your head against the left-side window
– Be able to see the lane beside the car when sitting correctly
to drive
– Be able to see a little of the vehicle in side view mirror when
your head is learned against the left side window
Different Types of Turning Rules
• When choosing a spot for a turnabout, you should have at
least 500 feet of visibility
• A two-point turn is similar to backing into
a driveway to turn around
• In limited space with no driveways available, you may need
to execute a three point-turn
• A no left turn signal also prohibits a U turn.
• A car turning left with a green light must yield to
oncoming traffic. “Turn” always yields to “Straight.”
 Angle Parking
– When angle parking, the driver begins
steering when the steering wheel is aligned
with the first line of the space
 When parallel parking, you should begin 2-3 feet
from the car you want to park behind
 When parallel parking to the right, steer hard right, move
back until you are at a 45 degree angle, and you can see
the right headlight of the vehicle behind in your side view
NOTE: Parallel parking is not part of your drivers test!
 When parking uphill or downhill with a curb—turn
your wheels into the curb