Mid-18th century Wars

Mid-18th century Wars
I. Warfare during the 18th c. (in general)
1. Professional armies/navies led by?
2. War followed well-recognized_________
3. Civilian population?
4. Reason for War?
II. The 2 major areas of conflict
III. The Wars
1. War of Jenkin’s Ear (1739-1748)
(Keep in mind, the Treaty of Utrecht had
given 2 special privileges to Gr. Britain in
the Spanish Empire)
a) a 30-year asiento
b) Portobello
c) Problems arose b/c
This war marked the opening encounter
to a series of European wars fought
across the world until 1815.
The War of Jenkin’s Ear led to the War of
Austrian Succession.
These 2 wars could have remained
separate disputes if it had not been for the
role of France.
Before the War of Austrian Succession –
and for a dozen years – the Grand
Alliance fought Louis XIV (France
biggest threat for a long time)
2. War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748)
a) Frederick II (the Great) ignored Pragmatic
Sanction and seized Silesia
– Siliesia had 1 million people, a prosperous linen
industry, and rich deposits of iron ore
– France supports Prussia. Why?
Traditional enemy of Austria b/c
Austria upset that Spanish Habsburgs lost control of
Spain to the Bourbons (War of Spanish Succession)
– (remember – Louis XIV’s grandson Philip V got
the throne, but after the war he had to agree NOT
to unite France and Spain…
– AND, Louis XIV gave Spanish Netherlands to
b) A fateful decision in French history. WHY?
• French aid consolidated a new & powerful
state in Germany (Prussia)
French aid drew _______ into the war, b/c it
wanted to make sure the Low Countries
remained under the control of Austria and
not France.
c) France supported Spain in the New World.
Why? (Spanish king is a ______)
* This aid left Fr military and economic
resources badly divided.
d) War ended in a stalemate
e) Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
* Frederick keeps Silesia which confirms
Prussia’s status as a great power and chief
rival of Austria in German affairs.
War of Austrian Succession (1749-1748) pitted:
France supported Prussia because Austria was
France’s traditional enemy
France supported Spain to fight British in the New
War of Austrian Succession ends in stalemate
(Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle)
Good for Maria Theresa because she can rebuild
army and form new alliances…which she does do,
and does very well
3. The Diplomatic Revolution
a) Austrian chancellor, Count Kaunitz, vowed to
recover Silesia
b) He formed a coalition that included France
Austria & Russia
c) One consequence of this new alliance was the
marriage of Marie Antoinette to the future Louis
XVI of France.
d) England allies w/ Prussia to stick to its policy of
maintaining a balance-of-power on the
e) Frederick of Prussia feared invasions by both
France and Russia
f) France would now fight to restore Austrian
Supremacy in central Europe ! !
Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
Major shift in alliances – this is before the
Seven Year’s War
Prussia and British sign Convention of
Frederick feared France and Russia
Woah!!! British have now joined forces with
Prussia…Austria’s enemy from war of Austrian
France and Austria sign an alliance
This completely reversed what French foreign
policy had followed since the 16th century.
4. The Seven Years’ War
a) Begins when Frederick II invades Saxony
(thought Saxony, Austria & France were
conspiring to destroy Prussian Power)
b) Fred’s greatest fear realized when: Sweden,
Russia & many German states join with France
and Austria to defeat Prussia
c) Prussia wins b/c of 2 things:
1 – British financial support
2 – Peter III of Russia backed out because he
admired Fred II
d) Result of war? Prussia keeps Silesia & ranks
among the great powers AND France no
longer a major colonial power in Americas.
e) Referred to as the French & Indian War in
North America
f) Though the war is over on the European
continent, France & Britain continue the
fight on the American continent.
British & British Colonists in America
France and various American Indian tribes
Results of French & Indian War
British win, thanks to William Pitt the Elder
(Secretary of War) who pumped money into
Prussian war effort to divert French resources
and attention away from the colonial struggle.
France forced to cede eastern part of French
Louisiana to the British
France cedes western part to Spain because it
lost Florida to the British
By 1800 France regains control of western
French Louisiana
Between 1755 & 1760, the value of French
colonial trade fell by more than 80%
NEVER had Gr. Britain or any other
European power experienced such a
complete worldwide military victory.
It was now a WORLD power, not just a
European power.
• Treaty of Paris (Feb. 1763) ended the
commercial struggle b/t Gr. Brit and
The American Revolution
I. After the Treaty of Paris
1. British national debt had risen
2. British felt it rational for colonies to bear
part of the cost for their protection and
3. Taxes: Sugar, Stamp
4. Boston Massacre
5. Tea Tax (Boston Tea Party)
George III?
John Wilkes?
Yorkshire Association Movement?