Mid-18th century Wars I. Warfare during the 18th c. (in general) 1. Professional armies/navies led by? 2. War followed well-recognized_________ 3. Civilian population? 4. Reason for War? II. The 2 major areas of conflict 1) 2) III. The Wars 1. War of Jenkin’s Ear (1739-1748) (Keep in mind, the Treaty of Utrecht had given 2 special privileges to Gr. Britain in the Spanish Empire) a) a 30-year asiento b) Portobello c) Problems arose b/c This war marked the opening encounter to a series of European wars fought across the world until 1815. The War of Jenkin’s Ear led to the War of Austrian Succession. How? These 2 wars could have remained separate disputes if it had not been for the role of France. Before the War of Austrian Succession – and for a dozen years – the Grand Alliance fought Louis XIV (France biggest threat for a long time) Austria Prussia Dutch English versus France 2. War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748) a) Frederick II (the Great) ignored Pragmatic Sanction and seized Silesia – Siliesia had 1 million people, a prosperous linen industry, and rich deposits of iron ore – France supports Prussia. Why? • • Traditional enemy of Austria b/c Austria upset that Spanish Habsburgs lost control of Spain to the Bourbons (War of Spanish Succession) – (remember – Louis XIV’s grandson Philip V got the throne, but after the war he had to agree NOT to unite France and Spain… – AND, Louis XIV gave Spanish Netherlands to Austria) b) A fateful decision in French history. WHY? • French aid consolidated a new & powerful state in Germany (Prussia) • French aid drew _______ into the war, b/c it wanted to make sure the Low Countries remained under the control of Austria and not France. c) France supported Spain in the New World. Why? (Spanish king is a ______) * This aid left Fr military and economic resources badly divided. d) War ended in a stalemate e) Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle * Frederick keeps Silesia which confirms Prussia’s status as a great power and chief rival of Austria in German affairs. War of Austrian Succession (1749-1748) pitted: Prussia France Spain – – – – versus Britain Austria France supported Prussia because Austria was France’s traditional enemy France supported Spain to fight British in the New World War of Austrian Succession ends in stalemate (Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle) Good for Maria Theresa because she can rebuild army and form new alliances…which she does do, and does very well 3. The Diplomatic Revolution a) Austrian chancellor, Count Kaunitz, vowed to recover Silesia b) He formed a coalition that included France Austria & Russia c) One consequence of this new alliance was the marriage of Marie Antoinette to the future Louis XVI of France. d) England allies w/ Prussia to stick to its policy of maintaining a balance-of-power on the continent e) Frederick of Prussia feared invasions by both France and Russia f) France would now fight to restore Austrian Supremacy in central Europe ! ! Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 Major shift in alliances – this is before the Seven Year’s War Prussia Britain – versus France Austria Prussia and British sign Convention of Westminster • • – Frederick feared France and Russia Woah!!! British have now joined forces with Prussia…Austria’s enemy from war of Austrian Succession!!! France and Austria sign an alliance • This completely reversed what French foreign policy had followed since the 16th century. 4. The Seven Years’ War a) Begins when Frederick II invades Saxony (thought Saxony, Austria & France were conspiring to destroy Prussian Power) b) Fred’s greatest fear realized when: Sweden, Russia & many German states join with France and Austria to defeat Prussia c) Prussia wins b/c of 2 things: 1 – British financial support 2 – Peter III of Russia backed out because he admired Fred II d) Result of war? Prussia keeps Silesia & ranks among the great powers AND France no longer a major colonial power in Americas. e) Referred to as the French & Indian War in North America f) Though the war is over on the European continent, France & Britain continue the fight on the American continent. g) British & British Colonists in America vs France and various American Indian tribes • • • • • Results of French & Indian War British win, thanks to William Pitt the Elder (Secretary of War) who pumped money into Prussian war effort to divert French resources and attention away from the colonial struggle. France forced to cede eastern part of French Louisiana to the British France cedes western part to Spain because it lost Florida to the British By 1800 France regains control of western French Louisiana Between 1755 & 1760, the value of French colonial trade fell by more than 80% NEVER had Gr. Britain or any other European power experienced such a complete worldwide military victory. It was now a WORLD power, not just a European power. • Treaty of Paris (Feb. 1763) ended the commercial struggle b/t Gr. Brit and France The American Revolution I. After the Treaty of Paris 1. British national debt had risen considerably 2. British felt it rational for colonies to bear part of the cost for their protection and administration. 3. Taxes: Sugar, Stamp 4. Boston Massacre 5. Tea Tax (Boston Tea Party) George III? John Wilkes? Yorkshire Association Movement?