War of Austrian Succession Seven
Year War/ French Indian War
Enlightened Monarchs
Also known as the Age of Reason
• Scientific Revolution laid the foundation for a modern
world view based on:
– Rationalism = reason is the chief source of knowledge
– Secularization = indifference to or rejection of religion
or religious consideration
• Use the scientific method to make progress towards a
better society
– Reason could be used to study and question human
nature and society
• Philosophe = intellectual of the Enlightenment
– Want to change the world
– Mostly of the nobility and middle class, most are
• Salon = elegant drawing rooms, where philosophes
meet to discuss and spread ideas
– Usually hosted by wealthy women
• Enlightenment influenced by two Englishmen:
– Newton – find natural laws, using his methods, that
govern human society
– Locke – people are molded by their experiences and
can change with environment
• Philosophes began to question ideas that had been long
held as absolute truths, such as absolute monarchy and
hierarchy in society
Scientific Revolution
Enlightened Monarchs
• Also known as Enlightened Absolutists, these are
European monarchs who sought to govern using
Enlightenment ideals
– They were able to play with the ideas of the
philosophes without threatening their own power
– Did not bring about much reform, thought it would
take away from their own power
• Three well-known Enlightened Monarchs
– Frederick II the Great of Prussia
– Catherine the Great of Russia
– Joseph II of Austria
War of Austrian Succession
• Rivalry between the Austrian family, the Hapsburgs, and
the Prussian family, the Hollenzollerns
• Austrian Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI had no male
heir so he issued the Pragmatic Sanction
– Stated that the empire could be passed to a female
heir, his daughter Maria Theresa
– Also all Hapsburg lands would remain intact under
one ruler
– All European rulers agreed to this
• In 1740 Charles dies and Frederick the Great of Prussia,
followed quickly by France, violate the Sanction and
invade Austrian territory
– Prussia seizes Silesia, one of the richest Austrian
– Great Britain joins the war on the side of Austria
against France, Prussia, and Spain
• Fought in three areas of the world:
– Europe
– Asia
– North America
• At the end of the war in 1748, all property is
returned except Silesia, which Prussia keeps
Seven Years’ War/ French and Indian War
• Lasts from 1756 to 1763
• Austria is angry about Silesia and wants revenge
– Diplomatic Revolution = Austria makes an alliance
with traditional enemy France against Prussia
• Russia also joins, although they pull out during the
– Due to this, Great Britain allies with Prussia
• Rivalries over colonies also played a major role in
leading to this war
• Areas of conflict:
– Europe – all territories returned at war’s end
– India – known as the Great War for Empire
• France leaves India to Britain
– North America – also known as the French and Indian
• Britain gains Canada from France and Florida from
• Louisiana Territory goes to Spain (for losing
• The war ends with Prussia winning on the European
continent and Great Britain winning overseas
– The Treaty of Paris makes Great Britain the world’s
greatest colonial power
– France loses big and wants revenge