27.2 Part 1 of 2 - History of China

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Today’s Schedule – 4/26

1. CNN Student News

27.1/27.2 Vocab and Standards Re-writes Check

2. PPTs

27.2 Part 1: History of China

27.2 Part 2: Culture of China

HW:

27.3 Vocab

EARLY HISTORY

The Chinese have the longest known continuous history of any culture

As early as 6,000 BC

People began farming along the Chang River

Evidence suggests the first dynasty in China was the

Shang Dynasty (1700s – 1100s BC)

During the 200’s BC China’s first emperor conquered most of eastern China

He ordered the connection of the ancient walls to protect against invaders from the north.

This would become the Great Wall of China

This dynasty was called the Qin, or the

Ch’in.

The term China comes from this dynasty.

The first emperor’s name was Cheng

He was buried in a tomb near a clay army of unique soldiers and horses.

The Han Dynasty

(202 BC – 220 AD)

Was a high period of Chinese culture.

Cities grew rapidly, and art and architecture flourished.

During the first millennium

China was the most advanced country in the world.

Mongol invaders under Genghis Khan invaded China

And by 1279 they ruled all of China.

The Chinese rebelled and retook control of

China

After this period, China’s rulers forbade trade with the outside world.

For centuries China had contact with the outside world only through overland trade routes.

The Silk Road extended through China to Central Asia to the Black Sea.

MODERN HISTORY

During the 1500’s Europeans began to reach China by sea

The Chinese largely ignored these visitors.

The Chinese, however, were unprepared to deal with the aggressive nature of the Europeans.

During the 1800’s

China lost several wars and was unable to keep out the

Europeans, U.S., and

Japan

China lost Hong Kong to the British

Taiwan was conquered by

Japan

In 1912 rebels overthrew the last Chinese dynasty and formed the Republic of China

A man named Chiang Kaishek became China’s leader under the Nationalist Party

Tried to defeat warlords that controlled part of China

Also faced opposition from

Communist Party

During the 1930’s Japan took over much of northern and eastern China and set-up a puppet government

Japan committed many atrocities in China during this period.

After Japan’s defeat in WWII

China fell into civil war between the

Nationalists (under

Chiang Kai-shek) and the Communists led by a man named Mao

Zedong.

The Communists won in 1949 and established the People’s Republic of China

(PRC)

The Nationalists retreated to the island of Taiwan.

Memorial to Chang

Kai-Shek

Nationalist Party members called it Taiwan, The

Republic of China

Still has this name today

Communist rule in China

Resulted in the loss of many personal freedoms.

People were forced onto large government farms

And all private property was seized.

Communism also changed the family structure in China

Men and women were now equal, and the government tried to slow the growth of families, limiting each family to one child.

Mao tried to rapidly industrialize the

Chinese economy

This plan was called the

Great Leap Forward.

Mao’s plans for the Chinese economy was a disaster

The economy and the environment suffered.

Mao also undertook a “Cultural

Revolution”

Where people who he suspected of being his enemies – intellectuals, scientists – were put to death, imprisoned, or sent to work in the countryside.

After Mao died in 1976

Deng Xiaoping came to power

He realized much of Mao’s plans had been mistakes

Widespread famine

Environmental disasters

China began to modernize its economy

And he moved the country towards a market economy.

Today many farmers grow their own crops although the land is leased from the government

And China is self-sufficient in food.

China has attracted much foreign investment in manufacturing and textiles.

While China has opened its economy

Politically it is still very closed

.

In 1989 students protested for democracy in

Tiananmen Square

The government sent in troops and tanks to crush the protestors – and hundreds were killed.

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