By drawing a picture describe the flow of genetic information from DNA to a protein. What is the function of RNA? Transfers or relays genetic information What is the product of transcription? mRNA Where in the cell does transcription take place? Nucleus What is the product of translation? A protein Where in the cell does translation take place? At the ribosome True or false: During transcription, mRNA is being synthesized from both sides (both backbones) of DNA. False: mRNA is a complement to only one side of DNA What determines which amino acid is brought to the ribosome during translation? The mRNA codon – use your codon chart. Remember 1 codon = 1 amino acid! What bring the amino acids to the ribosome during translation? tRNA Given the DNA sequence find the mRNA sequence and the amino acid sequence: TACGGACAC DNA: TACGGACAC mRNA: AUGCCUGUG A.A.: Met-Pro-Val Removing a nucleotide from a DNA sequence is called ____________ mutation. Frameshift (deletion) What mutation is shown below: ATTGGCTATCCG ATTGGGTATCCG Point mutation (also called substitution) What is the major problem that could result from a mutation? An abnormal protein If a mutation does not cause a change in the amino acid sequence it is called a: Silent mutation Name 1 benefit of genetic engineering. • helps to determine paternity • identify a carrier of a particular gene • solve a crime What process or technique is used to help researchers analyze a person’s DNA and compare the sequence to other organisms? Gel electrophoresis What is the term used to describe which genes are turned “off and on” in order to synthesis necessary proteins for the organism? Gene expression When cloning a mouse, how many mice does the process require? 3 – A donor somatic cell (the cell being cloned), a donor egg cell and a surrogate. The nucleus is removed from the donor egg cell and the somatic cell nucleus is implanted in the surrogate.