The Ottoman Empire

Living in the Ottoman Empire
Directions: Create a chart of pros and cons about living in the Ottoman Empire using p.578579 and Ottomans, The New Champions of Islam Handout.
The Ottoman
Empire of Faith: Ottomans
The Ottomans:#1
speaking from
Central Asia
The last great Islamic empire
in the world (1300-1900)
Empire of Faith - Ottomans
Beginning 0-4:10
 Osman
I (1280-1324)#2
founded Ottomans
Ghazis: Islamic warriors who would
conquer lands for plunder, glory, and
to spread Islam
 Ghazis took control of old Seljuk
territories, and expanded into
Christian-held lands
The Ottomans
Osman I
and his
Empire of Faith - Ottomans
Devshirme 4:10 – 11:05
Civil Service and Social Structure
 Practice of taking Christian boys between 10-20
years of age, converting them to Islam, and
training them for positions in either:
a) military – “Men of the Sword”
b) civil service – “Men of the Pen”
Civil Service and Social Structure
 were trained as elite infantry in the Ottoman
 High-ranking advisor to the Sultan. Often came
from the devshirme system
Empire of Faith - Ottomans
Sultan Mehmet II 11:05 - 12:55
 Sultan
Mehmet II (1400)
 conquered
 renamed it Istanbul
 new
capital of the Ottoman
 ended
Byzantine Empire
Empire of Faith - Ottomans
Cannons and Strategy 12:55- 16:24
Under their leader, Mehmet II,
the Ottomans besiege and
capture Constantinople 1453
This is a serious blow, as well as
a threat, to Christian Europe.
Ottomans were the first to use
large numbers of muskets and
cannons, which gave them
military and technological
Siege of Constantinople
The battle for Constantinople
Empire of Faith - Ottomans
Siege of Constantinople 16:24 – 21:29
The Ottomans then begin to expand eastward
into Muslim-controlled territory
Selim the Grim comes to power in 1512 after
murdering his father and brothers
Selim was an effective Sultan and General
Sultan: title of Ottoman rulers
Selim captures Arabia, Palestine, Persia, Syria, and
sections of Egypt.
Captures the holy cities of Mecca and Medina
Ottomans now control much of the territory of the
original Umayyad and Abbassid Caliphates
Turkish Sultans would later take the title of caliph,
giving them religious authority
Ottoman Expansion
What was the
source of
Ottoman power?
1. Political
skillful gov’t, bureaucracy
2. Control of Trade
of the
3. Wealth from
trade and taxes
The lavishly decorated throne room of
Topkapi Palace, home to Ottoman rulers until
the early 20th century.
4. Superior
(the benefit of
Suleiman the Magnificent
Ottoman Empire
reaches its height under
Selim’s son, Suleiman.
Suleiman rules for 46
years, from 1520 to 1566
Empire of Faith - Ottomans
Suleiman 21:29 – 24:48
Suleiman the Magnificent
His was sometimes called Suleiman the Lawgiver or
Suleiman the Magnificent.
Suleiman was also a great general. His armies
conquered much of southern Europe (The
Balkans) and North Africa – expands empire
Expansion is finally stopped when he lays siege
to Vienna, but fails to capture it.
Golden Age
Sultan Suleiman I
Empire of Faith - Ottomans
Suleiman 27:00 – 33:00
Show Suleiman the Magnificent
Living in the
Ottoman Empire
Pros and Cons
(see chart)
Living in the Ottoman Empire
Directions: Create a chart of pros and cons about living in the Ottoman Empire using p.578579 and Ottomans, The New Champions of Islam Handout.
Sultan Suleiman I
Magnificent or Lawgiver #5
skillful gov’t, bureaucracy
Reforms to improve gov’t,
justice and economy
Tolerance 
Shariah - Timar
Self go verning; nonMuslim communities but
loyalty to Sultans #6
Improved lives of slaves
art, literature, architecture
“Turkish style” (minarets)
Domed Mosque
Janizary - Devshirme
Prosperous people=more
Social Structure – set
Men of the Pen
Men of the Sword
Ruled with absolute
By 1540 rule ½ “civilized
decline = inflation/poverty
Civil Service and Social Structure
 Provinces of the empire were allowed their own
local government.
 Non-Muslim communities were loyal to sultan
but were ruled by own religious leaders
 Included Jews, Armenians, Orthodox Christians
Suleymaniye Mosque
Istanbul, Turkey
Currently a Museum, formerly an
Imperial Mosque (1453–1931) and
Roman Catholic Cathedral (1204–
1261); originally constructed as an
Eastern Orthodox Cathedral (562–
1204, 1261–1453).
Hagia Sophia, Istanbul
The "Blue Mosque" of
Sultan Amet I in Istanbul,
Turkey. It was designed by
the architect Mehemed Aja
and built between 1609 and
1616 A.D. The sultan
wanted his mosque to rival,
if not surpass, the splendor
of Hagia Sophia. This gem
of Islamic architecture is
known as the "Blue Mosque"
because of the use of that
color in the tiles and
frescoes that decorate its
interior walls. It has six
minarets, a unique
Empire of Faith - Ottomans
Safavid Rivals 38:18 – 42:15
Chief Rivals: Safavids #7
Abbas the Great (shah: Persian King) 1587
– 1629 #9
 Persia (present day Iran) Capital: Isfahan
 welcomed outside influence
 Trade and commerce
 Disputes: #8
 Control
of Mesopotamia
 Religious:
 Safavids:
 Ottomans: Sunni
(Safavid from Islam DVD)
Empire of Faith - Ottomans
Siege of Vienna and Death of Suleiman 42:50 – end
Or 48:50 - end
Siege of Vienna: 1525
Ottoman Empire
in Decline #10
The Europeans
destroyed their
Ottoman Strength #1:
Control of trade.
broke this
strength by going around
Africa and gaining control
of trade. All water route
Ottoman Strength #2:
of the
Americas = fantastic
wealth for Europe from
Aztec and Inca gold and
Ottoman Strength #3:
industrial revolution
surpassed the Ottoman
superiority in technology
especially in production of
The Empire
Ends #11
Three reasons:
1. Nationalism: People
ruled by the Ottomans
wanted independence
(Internal Force)
Serbs, Croats,
Bulgarians, Greeks.
2. European Imperialism
(External Force)
revolution = need for
raw materials
European industries wanted
new markets
Large Military forces to control
trade = Navy
3. Competition
between European
nations led to
WWI in 1914
Rise and Decline of Ottoman
Interactive Map
Causes of WWI
 Rise
of Nationalism in Europe
for Colonies
Arms races and militarism
The Ottomans
sided with
Central Powers
and lost.
The Ottoman Empire
along with its Arab
territories were divided up
between Great Britain and
Sykes-Picot Agreement
A territory administered but not owned by
a member of the League of Nations.
Turkey becomes
a nation
Treaty of Lausanne