Islam 5 - Eaton Community Schools

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The Ottoman and
Safavid Empires
While the Mughals ruled India,
two other dynasties,
the Ottomans and the Safavids,
dominated the Middle
East and parts of
Eastern Europe.
The Age of Gunpowder Empires
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Success of these new empires happened because
of new weapons.
Cannons and muskets replaced mounted
warriors
Because of these weapons used in 1450-1650
this is sometimes called the “age of gunpowder
empires.”
The Ottomans
 Ottomans-
Turkish-speaking
nomadic group.
 Migrated from Central Asia into
Asia Minor.
 The Ottoman expansion
threatened the crumbling
Byzantine empire.
Constantinople falls to the Ottomans
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After many failed
attempts, Mehmet II
finally succeeds to take
Constantinople in 1453.
2 month siege
Constantinople will
become the new capital,
but was renamed
Istanbul.
Suleiman the Magnificent
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The Ottoman empire enjoys
a Golden Age under
Suleiman- ruler from 15201566.
Brilliant general, expanded
the empire east and west.
Felt he was the leader of all
Muslims
“Protector of the Sacred
Places” (Mecca and Medina)
Ottoman Culture

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Suleiman strengthened the
government.
Improved its system of
justice
Suleiman had absolute power
but ruled with the advice of a
council.
Ottoman law was based on
the Sharia
Government officials worked
with religious scholars
Sharia deals with many
aspects of day-to-day life,
including politics, economics,
banking, business law,
contract law, and social
issues.
Society organized into classes
1.
2.
3.
Soldiers who defended
the state and scientists,
lawyers and poets.
(“men of the sword
and pen”)
Merchants and tax
collectors and artisans
(“men of negotiation”)
Farmers and herders
(“men of husbandry”)
Almost entirely Muslim
Included Non-Muslims
Included Non-Muslims
Organization

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People organized into millets, or religious
communities.
Each millet had its own leaders who were
responsible for education and some legal
matters.
Army and Government Jobs

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Ottomans recruited officers for army and
government from among the huge populations
of conquered people.
Levied a “tax” on Christian families in the
Balkans, requiring them to turn over their young
sons for government service.
Boys were converted to Muslim and put into
training.
After the training

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Best soldiers won a
prized place in the
janizaries- elite force of
the Ottoman army.
The best of these
received special
education to become
government officials.
What about the girls?
 Non-Muslim
girls served as slaves in
wealthy Muslim households.
 Some were accepted into the
household
 Some were freed after the death of
their masters.
Decline of the Ottomans



Began after the death of
Suleiman.
Suleiman had killed two
of his sons because he
suspected them of
treason.
Another son, Selim II,
took over but left the
government work to
ministers. It soon
became corrupt.
The Safavid Empire

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
1500 the Safavid- a dynasty that united an
empire in Persia (present day Iran).
Sandwiched between the Ottoman empire and
the Mughal empire they often engaged in
warfare.
Safavids were Shiite Muslims and the Ottomans
were Sunni Muslims. Many tensions
Abbas the Great
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Safavid king was called
the Shah.
Shah Abbas- revived
the glory of Persia.
Centralized the
government and made a
powerful military.
Looked for alliances with
European powers who
feared the Ottomans.
Abbas and the economy

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Reduced taxes
Encouraged the growth
of industry
Tolerated non-Muslims
and valued their
economic contributions.
Built new capital at
Isfahan- which became
a center of the
international silk trade.
The Safavid empire declines
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Empire declines after the death of Shah Abbas
Shiite Muslims challenge the authority of the
Shah. They want persecution of religious
minorities, pushing Sunni Afghans to rebel
The rebels will win and capture Isfahan.
1700’s- Qajars- won control of Iran. Made
Tehran its capital. They ruled until 1925.
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