AP World History Chapter 32: Societies in Crossroads Background: In the nineteenth century Tokugawa Japan, Qing China, the Ottoman empire, and Russia faced profound challenges that fundamentally transformed all four powerful states. The four societies also faced other common problems: population pressures, falling agricultural productivity, famine, declining revenue, and corrupt bureaucracies. Assignment: You will be assigned to a group that will represent a panel of western advisers that includes experts in industry, education, military defense, and constitutional law. You have been invited by the government of Russia, China, Japan, or the Ottoman Empire to recommend a program of moderate reform. Your task: ~ Develop a reform program with specific recommendations. ~ Prioritize your reforms. ~ Explain your reforms and your priorities Other considerations: Your recommendations need to be specific. For example, “improve the status of women” is too general. “Primary education for girls” is more specific. You will need to take into account social and political structures and significant cultural traditions of the country to which you are assigned. Group 1: Russia. Group 2: China. Group 3: Japan. Group 4: Ottoman Empire.