LATITUDE drawn east to west to show distances north or south of the Equator (0 degrees) Equator divides the Earth into the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres Horizontal lines on maps LONGITUDE • • • drawn North-South from pole to pole to show distances East and West of the Prime Meridian (0 degrees) The Prime Meridian (running through Greenwich, UK), divides the Earth into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres Vertical lines on maps About latitude . . . North Pole (90 degrees N) South Pole (90 degrees S) Tropic of Cancer (23.5 degrees N) On June 21st the sun is directly overhead Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 degrees S) On Dec. 21st the sun is directly overhead Arctic Circle (66.5 degrees N) Antarctic Circle (66.5 degrees S) Each degree is approximately 110 km of land distance Canada is in the Northern Hemisphere About Longitude….. The Prime Meridian passes through Greenwich, England. (0 degrees) The International Date Line is 180 degrees from the Prime Meridian. This is where new days begin. Longitude tells how far east or west you are travelling from the Prime Meridian Canada is in the Western Hemisphere The distance around the Earth is 40,000 km Each degree of latitude or longitude can be separated into 60 equal units called minutes. Always begin with latitude and determine the number of degrees north of the Equator you are (in the Northern Hemisphere, of course). Once you have the degrees north, determine the number of minutes as well. You should then have a number of degrees and minutes North. Next, determine the degrees west of the Prime Meridian you have travelled (in the Western Hemisphere). Then, you must also identify the number of minutes as well. You should then have a number of degrees and minutes West. The correct format is: ___◦ ___’ N ___◦ ___’ W You should try to be as accurate as possible. I will allow a margin of +/- 5 minutes error just in case you and I don’t agree.