Chapter 22 Respiratory System

Chapter 22
Respiratory System
Function of the Respiratory System
• Supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide
Four Processes of Respiration
• Pulmonary ventilation
• External respiration
• Transport of respiratory gases
• Internal respiration
Pulmonary Ventilation
• Movement of air into and out of lungs so that the
gases are constantly being exchanged and refreshed.
• Commonly known as breathing.
External Respiration
• Movement of oxygen from the lungs to the blood and
of carbon dioxide from the blood to the lungs
Transport of Respiratory Gases
• Transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the
• Oxygen from the lungs to the capillaries (cells)
• Carbon dioxide from the capillaries to the lungs (cells)
Internal Respiration
• Movement of oxygen from the blood to the tissue
cells and of carbon dioxide from the tissue cells to the
• Only the first two processes are the actual responsibility of the
respiratory system, but it can’t accomplish its primary goal unless the
3rd and 4th processes are also occurring!
• The respiratory and circulatory systems are closely coupled!
• Nose, pharynx
(throat), larynx
(voice box),
bronchi, and
Parts of the Respiratory System
• Nose & nasal cavity
• Only external part of the
respiratory system.
• Provides an airway for
• Moistens, warms and
filters air.
• Resonating chamber for
• Has olfactory (smell)
Nasal Cavity
• Space within internal nose
• Cavity is divided by the
nasal septum
• During breathing air enters
the cavity by passing
through the nostrils
(external nares).
Nasal Conchae
• Superior, middle, and
• Protrude medially from
the lateral wall in the
nasal cavity (like shelves)
• Greatly increase the
surface area and enhance
air turbulence 
• gases swirl and turn, the
heavier particles fall out
and become trapped in
mucous covering the
Paranasal Sinuses
• Surround the nasal cavity
• Located in the frontal,
sphenoid, ethmoid, and
maxillary bones.
• “Spaces” in the facial bones
• Lighten skull
• Warm and moisten air
• Produce mucous – flows into
the nasal cavity.
• Blowing your nose helps drain
the sinuses.
Paranasal Sinuses
Homeostatic Imbalance
• Viruses, streptococcal
• Sinusitis 
bacteria, allergens can
• When the passageways to the
cause rhinitis 
sinuses are blocked, the air in the
• inflammation of the nasal cavity is absorbed causing a
mucosa that is
partial vacuum and a sinus
accompanied by excessive headache
mucus production,
congestion and postnasal
• AKA - Throat.
• Muscular tube extending
from behind the nasal
cavity to the larynx
• Passageway for food and
air, resonating chamber
for speech, houses
• Three regions:
• A) nasopharynx
• B) oropharynx
• C) laryngopharynx
• AKA - Voice box
• 3 main functions:
• Provides an open airway
• Acts as a switching
mechanism for food and
• Sound production
Anatomy of Larynx - Epiglottis
• Flexible, spoon shaped
piece of elastic cartilage
that covers the larynx when
• Keeps everything going
down the correct “tube”
• If anything other than air
enters the larynx, the cough
reflex is triggered
• The “hole” seen at the
opening of the larynx.
• On either side you will
see 2 strips of
membranous tissue 
vocal cords (sound
production) appear
white because lack
blood vessels.
• False vocal cords – above
and lateral to the vocal
• Play no part in sound
production but help
close the glottis when
we swallow