shareholders - people who provide capital workforce – all the people working in a company Board of Directors – a group of persons who govern the corporation Chairperson/ President–a person who heads the Board of Directors Managing Director (MD)/ Chief Executive Officer (CEO)– person who has overall responsibility for the running of a company Senior managers –monitoring and correcting the work of a group of people Middle managers - lower executives and employees who supervise day-to-day operations recruit / Hire – employ recruitment agency- firms that try to suite up people with the right jobs position – job, appointment, post apply for – to request or seek a job, employment applicant/ candidate– a person who applies for a job shortlist –a list of preferable candidates that have been selected for final consideration interview - a formal meeting in person, arranged for the assessment of the qualifications of an applicant letter of application /Covering letter- a letter sent along with a CV to provide additional information curriculum vitae CV/ (AmE) resume - a written document that lists your work experience, skills, and educational background retailing - the sale of goods in small quantities directly to consumers retailer – a person who sales in small quantities directly to customers chains - hotels or shops that have the same owner or management shopping centre – a group of shops and often restaurants having a common parking space outlet - a store that sells the goods of a particular manufacturer or wholesaler hypermarket - a very large retail outlet that is a combination of a department store and a supermarket. department store - a large retail store for the sale of many kinds of goods organized in separate departments retail park - an area outside a town with many large shops and space for cars to park franchising - business system where two parties are involved, the franchisor and the franchisee and the contract binding them is franchise franchisor - is the person who gives the license or permission to the franchisee. franchisee - is the person who receives the rights of conducting the business from the franchisor franchise fee (front end fee) - the initial sum of money paid when purchasing a franchise Management services fee – money paid by the franchisee for the assistance and advice advertising fee - fee paid by the franchisee to the franchisor as his share of the corporate advertising costs operations manual - guidelines for the franchisee on how to operate the franchised business master franchisee -main franchisee within a specified geographical area delegate-transfer power to someone initiative-readiness to make a first step subordinates-a person that is of lesser rank or importance central bank - a bank which issues money, looks after the government’s finance and monetary policy and acts as a banker to other banks commercial bank - offers a full range of banking products and services to individuals and businesses merchant bank – a bank that does not deal with public but specializes in corporate finance stock market (or stock exchange) – a place for buying and selling shares shares ( US stocks) – units of capital equities -shares issued by a company entitling their holders to a dividend according to the profits of the company and to a claim on net assets to issue – to publish, to emit investors - someone who gives capital in order to gain financial returns broker - an agent who buys or sells goods, securities shareholder (US stockholder) - the owner of shares in a company dividend - part of a company's profits paid to its shareholders bonds – loans for fixed periods with fixed interest rates securities - a certificate of ownership, such as a share, stock, or bond to trade – to buy and sell for profit export – send goods to another country import – bring in goods from another country tariffs (or duties) – a tax on imported goods quotas – maximum quantity of a product allowed into country during a certain period financial accounts-give information about financial performance management accounts-provide data about operational efficiency revenue-the total amount od money that a company receives during a certain period public limited companies (plc.) – companies whose shares can be bought and sold on the stock exchange sole trader (sole proprietor) - a business owned by a single individual. partnership – a relationship in which two or more people or organizations work together private limited companies (ltd.) – has shareholders with limited liability and its shares may not be offered to the general public. limited liability - type of investment in which a partner cannot lose more than he invested. The investor or partner is not personally responsible for the debts and obligations of the company in case that these are not fulfilled, their responsibility is limited to the amount that they contributed. incorporated (inc.) - organized and maintained as a legal corporation by completing the required procedures. joint venture - a partnership formed often to share risk or expertise. merger – which is when two approximately equal-sized companies join to combine forces. acquisition or takeover - an acquisition is when one larger company purchases a smaller company. marketing mix-four ps: product, price, place, promotion target audience-the specific group to which advertising is directed product advertising-making a product or service known to a wider audience corporate advertising-generating positive publicity for companies brand image-a picture which company wants to present to the public media-television, radio, newspapers, magazines, the internet and direct mail publish- to prepare and issue (a book, a magazine) for sale press-all the media and agencies that print, broadcast, or gather and transmit news. data-facts that can be analyzed, information broadcast-to transmit programs from a radio or television station. networks-a. a group of transmitting stations linked by wire or microwave relay so that the same radio or television program can be broadcast by all; an organization that provides the programs for these stations. Possible exam questions: 1. Who is at the top of a company? 2. Which departments in a company do you know? 3. What can companies do when they want to recruit people? 4. Name as many as possible retail outlets that you know. 5. What are advantages and disadvantages of a franchise system for a franchisor/franchisee? 6. Which services are offered by a commercial bank? 7. What is the difference between commercial and a merchant bank? 8. Name as many as possible verbs which can describe the change in the share price. 9. What goods does your country export and import? 10. What form of business would you choose if you want to set up a company? Why? 11. What is the difference between public and private limited companies? 12. What is the difference between a merger and an acquisition? 13. Which different techniques can companies use for market research? 14. What methods of advertising are the best? Why?