The Plant By: Teddy Frisk Origin of Plant A plant is a multicellular eukaryote. Plants evolved from filamentous green algae that lived in the ancient oceans. Leafless plants later moved to land. Adaptations in Plants As plants moved from the oceans to land, they had to adapt to survive. The adaptations were: Cuticle; the development of leaves, roots, stems, & vascular tissues. Alteration of generations; and the evolution of the seed. Cuticle Waxy waterproof coating of stems & leaves of most plants. Leaves/Roots/Stems Leaves: Plant organ that grows from a stem, and usually where photosynthesis occurs. Roots: Plant organ that absorbs water & minerals from soil. Stems: Plant organ that provides support for growth. Vascular Tissues Tube-like cells where water, food, & other materials are transported. Alteration of Generations 2 stages; the gametophyte generation, and the sporophyte generation (life cycle of plant). Gametophyte generation: All cells are haploid. Sporophyte generation: All cells are diploid, & are produced by mitosis & cell division. Seed Plant organ that contains an embryo, along with a food supply. Plant Kingdom Grouped into major categories called divisions. Nonvascular Plants They are in the divisions Anthocerophyta, Hepaticophyta, & Bryphyta. They produce mainly by using spores. They don’t produce seeds. Non-seed Vascular Plants They are in the divisions Psilophyta, Lycophyta, Arthrophyta, & Pterophyta. Their tissues conduct water & other materials & reproduce mainly by spores. Vascular Seed Plants They are in the divisions Cycadophyta, Gnetophyta, Ginkgophyta, & Coniferophyta produce seeds on cones. Male cones & females cones can be on separate plants or the same plant. Anthophyta Division It includes vascular, seed-producing plants that flower. Fruits with seed develop from flowers. Anthophytes are divided into two groups; monocotyledons & dicotyledons.