Name: __________________________ Parent Signature: ______________________ Plants Study Guide Modified True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement true. ____ 1. In plants, sexual reproduction occurs when a sperm cell and an egg cell unite to form a zygote. _________________________ ____ 2. During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide and water combine to produce sugar and oxygen. _________________________ ____ 3. A moss is a type of vascular plant. _________________________ ____ 4. Nonvascular plants use rigid stems for support. _________________________ ____ 5. The gametophyte generation of a moss has structures that look like roots, a stem, and leaves. _________________________ ____ 6. Scientists use hydroponics to alter a plant's genetic material and make the plant produce more food. _________________________ ____ 7. The seed coat is the young plant that develops from a fertilized egg. _________________________ ____ 8. A gymnosperm is a seed plant that produces naked seeds. _________________________ ____ 9. Two characteristics of angiosperms are that they produce flowers and fruits. _________________________ ____ 10. Monocots include grasses, lilies, and tulips. _________________________ Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 11. The raw materials of photosynthesis are a. sugar and water. b. sugar and oxygen. c. carbon dioxide and oxygen. d. carbon dioxide and water. ____ 12. The energy that powers photosynthesis comes from a. water. b. chemicals. c. oxygen. d. the sun. ____ 13. The adaptation that helps plants retain water is the a. vascular tissue b. zygote c. leaf d. cuticle ____ 14. What stage produces the egg cells and sperm cells during the life cycle of a plant? a. gametes b. gametophyte c. sporophyte d. zygotes ____ 15. The spores that plants produce develop into the a. gametes. b. zygotes. c. sporophyte stage. d. gametophyte stage. ____ 16. Nonvascular plants differ from vascular plants in a. how they make food. b. where they obtain water and nutrients. c. how they transport water and nutrients. d. how they reproduce. ____ 17. All of the following organisms are nonvascular plants EXCEPT a. mosses b. liverworts c. lichens d. hornworts ____ 18. The part of a moss plant that has leaflike structures is the a. rhizoid. b. sporophyte c. capsule. d. gametophyte. ____ 19. Which of the following is NOT a reason why mosses are important? a. gardening b. food c. fuel d. forest regrowth ____ 20. Which two characteristics do ferns and their relatives share? a. vascular tissue and spores b. vascular tissue and seeds c. vascular tissue and leaflike structures d. vascular tissue and underground stems ____ 21. What parts of a fern grow underground? a. roots and fiddleheads b. roots and stems c. stems and leaves d. stems and fronds ____ 22. Why must ferns live in moist environments? a. to transport spores to new locations b. to transport water to all cells c. so that egg and sperm cells can join d. so that fiddleheads develop for food ____ 23. Which of the following is NOT a major source of food for people on Earth? a. wheat b. soy beans c. rice d. corn ____ 24. Both seed plants and seedless plants have a. microscopic gametophytes. b. microscopic sporophytes. c. complex life cycles. d. vascular tissue. ____ 25. What happens in phloem? a. Water moves up. b. Food moves down. ____ 26. ____ 27. ____ 28. ____ 29. ____ 30. ____ 31. ____ 32. ____ 33. ____ 34. ____ 35. c. Food moves up. d. Water moves down. Which of the following is(are) NOT a device for dispersing seeds? a. insects b. wind c. water d. large animals What is NOT a function of the leaf's veins? a. to bring water to the leaf's cells b. to connect the leaf with the rest of the plant c. to trap the energy of sunlight d. to transport food to the rest of the plant What part of a woody stem forms rings that indicate the tree's age? a. xylem b. phloem c. pith d. inner bark What is NOT a root function in plants? a. to absorb water b. to store food c. to anchor plants d. to produce food Root hairs help a plant a. transport food to the root. b. absorb water and nutrients. c. protect the root. d. store food. What characteristic do gymnosperms share? a. They live only in hot, dry climates. b. They produce naked seeds. c. They are trees. d. They grow cones. Which phrase describes pollination? a. the development of pollen grains b. the development of mature cones c. the transfer of pollen from male to female reproductive structures d. the joining of sperm and egg cells in an ovule Which is NOT a way that angiosperms are useful to people? a. as a source of food b. as a source of clothing c. as a source of medicine d. as a source of turpentine Flowers are a. structures for photosynthesis. b. vascular tissue structures. c. structures for seed dispersal. d. reproductive structures. An example of a negative plant tropism is a. stems growing up. b. leaves turning toward light. c. stems wrapping around poles. d. roots growing down. Completion Complete each sentence or statement. 36. A(n) ____________________ is a group of similar cells that perform a specific function in an organism. 37. In a plant's life cycle, a spore develops into a stage known as the ____________________. 38. Without ____________________ tissue, mosses cannot grow very large. 39. The ____________________ generation of a moss consists of a slender stalk with a capsule at the end. 40. A fern's spores develop in tiny cases on the underside of its leaves. These leaves are called ____________________. 41. In some plants, food is stored inside seed leaves called ____________________. 42. All gymnosperms have ____________________, and most also have needlelike or scalelike leaves and deep-growing root systems. 43. Two characteristics of angiosperms are that they produce flowers and ____________________. 44. Together, the anther and the filament make up the ____________________ of a flower. 45. A flower is pollinated when a pollen grain falls on the ____________________ at the tip of a pistil. Short Answer 46. What types of cells are the structures labeled C in the diagram? 47. How are the structures labeled D and E in the diagram different? 48. Identify the structures labeled A and B in the diagram. Are these male or female reproductive structures? 49. Identify the structures labeled C, D, and E in the diagram. Are these male or female reproductive structures? 50. The diagram shows only three of the flower's six petals. Did a monocot or a dicot produce this flower? Explain your reasoning.