General Plant and Plant cell characteristics: Eukaryotic – contains

General Plant and Plant cell characteristics:
Eukaryotic – contains usual membrane bound organelles
a. Additional structures:
i. Chloroplasts – contain chlorophyll; site of photosynthesis
ii. Cell wall – made of cellulose and lignin; provides rigidity and protection;
slows water loss
iii. Central vacuole – stores water for photosynthesis; provides turgor pressure
to help with plant’s rigidity
Plant classifications/divisions: ancient ancestor of plants is green algae (Protist)
Nonvascular or Bryophytes
a. Do not contain vascular tissue
b. Do not have stems, leaves, or roots
i. Contain rhizoids – root-like structures, usually one cell thick to anchor
c. Rely on osmosis and diffusion to transport water and nutrients in and out of their
d. Therefore usually very small
e. Reproduce through the use of spores (therefore seedless)
f. Three subdivisions:
i. Mosses
ii. Liverworts
iii. Hornworts
a. Contain vascular tissue
i. Xylem – carries water from roots up to stems/leaves
ii. Phloem – carries nutrients up or down to wherever the plant needs
iii. Cambium – produces new xylem or phloem as the plant grows
b. Contain stems, roots, and leaves
c. Reproduction method separates this group further
i. Seedless Vascular Plants
1. Reproduce using spores
2. Three subdivisions:
a. Ferns
i. Leaves = fronds
ii. Sori are spore cases on underside of fronds
iii. Grow in a variety of habitats
iv. Young fronds = fiddleheads are gourmet treat
b. Club mosses
i. Stems grow along ground
ii. Leaves are scale-like
iii. Produces powder that can be used in fireworks
c. Horsetails
i. Small leaves in circular pattern around hollow stem
ii. Contain silica – abrasive; used as pioneer’s scrub
brush for pots
ii. Seed Vascular Plants (see separate notes pdf file)