Chapter 12 PowerPoint Slides

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Introduction to

Geography

Arthur Getis, Judith Getis, &

Jerome D. Fellmann

Urban Geography

Chapter 11

Overview

The Functions of Urban Areas

The Location of Urban Settlements

Systems of Urban Settlements

Inside the City

Suburbanization in the U.S.

Central City Change

World Urban Diversity

The Functions of Urban Areas

Retailing

Wholesaling

Manufacturing

Business Services

Entertainment

Political & Official

Administration

Military Defense Needs

Social & Religious

Service

Public Services

Education

Transportation &

Communications

Meeting Places

Recreation

Visitor Services

Residential Areas

The Location of Urban

Settlements

Site

Break-in-bulk locations

River crossings, head-of-navigation locations, railheads

Situation

The Economic Base

Basic sector

Workers engaged in “export” activities

Nonbasic sector

Support the urban area, but do not bring in outside money

Basic/nonbasic ratio

Multiplier effect

Systems of Urban Settlements

The Urban Hierarchy

Rank-Size Rule

Primate cities

World cities

Urban influence zones

Towns in Agricultural Areas

Central Place Theory

Network cities

Central Place Theory

Walter Christaller

A model for helping to explain town interdependence

Threshold & range

A hierarchy exists of numerous small towns offering basic goods and services and fewer large towns offering a wider range of goods

Inside the City

Competitive bidding for land determines much of the land use within the city

In general, population density & land values decrease as distance from the CBD increases

Peak-value intersections

Population densities tend to show a hollow center

Models of Urban Land

Structure

Concentric Zone Model

Sector Model

Multiple-Nuclei Model

Social Areas of Cities

City residents, especially in larger, more complex cities, will often segregate themselves based on:

Social status

Family status

Ethnicity

Institutional Controls

Local & national governments pass laws to control urban life

Zoning and other nonmarket controls

Suburbanization in the U.S.

Metropolitanization & suburbanization after

WWII

Housing developments served as a pull factor to the suburbs

Industries followed the trend

Suburbs began to rival the power of the central city

Edge Cities

Central City Change

Constricted central cities

Suburbanization reduced the economic base of the central city and isolated its residents

Immigration & gentrification have revived many urban areas

Expanding central cities

Cities have expanded automobile linkages to keep the suburbs within the sphere of the central city

World Urban Diversity

U.S. & Canadian cities

West European cities

East European cities

Cities in the Developing World

Latin America

Asia

Africa

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