1. Why did the earliest civilizations develop in the eastern end of the Fertile Crescent? the soil was rich and the climate was cool 2. Why did the Phoenician economy flourish despite a complex story of migrations and invasions? They relied on manufacturing and sea-borne commerce. 3. Identify 3 outcomes of the Bronze Age? Increased agricultural efficiency The rise of an aristocratic military class Increased contact between different cultures 4. In what kind of society were women most likely to be treated as socially equal to men? Mongol nomadic community 5. What kind of society is a traditional society? farmers 6. Describe the Neolithic Revolution. change from nomadic herding to settled farming. 7. Describe the Mandate of Heaven. Rulers were allowed to keep their power if they ruled justly and wisely. 8. Which of the following is a major difference between the classic period in Rome and the Islamic civilizations? While Roman society had strict social class distinctions and little mobility, Islam was egalitarian, with few barriers to mobility 9. What assumption can be made about the rise of urbanization and the rise of social stratification? When people move to cities and do specialized work, they become socially stratified. 10. Alexander the Great’s conquests of Greece, Asia Minor, Egypt, and Persia led to the spread of Hellenic culture 11. What caused Western Europe to enter a period of chaos and disorder in the 5 th century? The Roman Empire fell, there were invasions 12. Identify the major long-term contributions of Ancient Greek and Roman. government and law 13. Define ethnocentrism. Belief in the superiority of one’s own culture over all others 14. Compare Spanish and French colonization efforts in North America. The French did not form as many permanent settlements in their colonies as the Spanish. 15. Compare feudalism and manorialism. Feudalism was a political system while manorialism was an economic system. 16. What did Han Emperor Wudi do the improve China’s system of bureaucracy? He created the civil service system. 17. What is one-way Sundiata helped the Mali Empire grow powerful and wealthy? He promoted agriculture and reestablished the gold-salt trade. 18. Historians studying linguistic syncretism would be most interested in the Bantu migrations 2 19. Why did manorialism in Europe decline in the 1100’s? the development of a money-based economy, the formation of towns and cities, peasant rebellions against nobles and the impact of the Black Death 20. What happened to the supply of gold in Europe as a result of European exploration through the midfifteenth century? Trade connections increased Europe’s gold supply. 21. Which of the following best describes a patriarchal gender system? Women are inferior and need to be protected. 22. Describe Neo-Confucianism. It gained prominence not only in China but also in Korea and Japan. Loyalty to government became more important than familial ties. It synthesized elements of Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism. It placed great value on education and scholarship. 23. Which of the following was NOT a reason the western half of the Roman Empire fell harder than the eastern half? Those in the western empire had no common language. Germanic tribes destroyed the western empire. Most people in the western empire lived outside Italy. Rome was not near any other major cities that could add support. 24. Ethnic cleansing is an example of migration for what reason – political, social or economic? Political 25. What was one effect of the Bantu migration? unification of the continent 26. Which of the following most likely accounts for the growth in human population between 3,000 b.c.e. and 200 c.e.? The development of plant and animal domestication 27. The Jewish religion and cultural identity has been greatly influenced by the Torah and the Diaspora 28. Which important issue that caused the original split between the Sunni and Shi’ite Muslims? should caliphs be chosen from Muhammad’s family or from the leadership of the umma? 29. What kind of society gave women often relatively higher status, had art centered on animals, used kinship to determine social hierarchy and relationship and encouraged trade with sedentary societies? Nomadic 30. Compare the eastern & western parts of what had been the Roman Empire from 500 1000 c.e. In general the civilizations of the east were more advanced economically and culturally than were those of the west. The east kept more aspects of the old Roman civilization intact than the west. Civilizations in the east generally were more directly involved in world trade. Political organizations in the west were generally more fragmented than in the east. 31. Which of the following is Justinian’s most significant long-term accomplishment? He systemized the Roman legal code. 32. What was a major reason for the rapid expansion of Islam in the 7 th & 8th centuries? The political distrust among the Byzantine and other neighboring empires 33. What was the major factor in the spread of Eastern Orthodoxy? development of the Cyrillic alphabet. 3 34. How did the Battle of Hastings change the course of English history? The Normans, led by William I, took control of England. 35. What was accomplished when King John signed the Magna Carta? power of the king was limited, nobles were assured trial by jury of peers, a council of advisors to king was formed by the nobles, people were assured of the right to a speedy trial 36. Which ruler exerted political power over several European monarchs? the Pope 37. How was the equal land system of China similar to European feudalism? The lord who was given the land was expected to give service to king as the peasants who lived on the land were expected to give labor to the lord. 38. Describe European feudal society. Those who swear loyalty receive fiefs in exchange for military service. 39. Why was Buddhism more popular among China’s neighbors than in China itself? Buddhism did not originate in China. 40. The most direct result of the invention of the moveable type printing press was that literacy rates across Europe rose. 41. What was the primary goal of scholasticism? balance cultural and religious norms with rational thought 42. Identify the main issues surrounding the Crusades? Militaristic and expansionist European monarchies, Islamic conquest of Jerusalem, the promise of salvation for Christian Crusaders and the desire of European nobles to become involved in trade 43. Describe the Columbian Exchange? Products of the old world to the new world & products of the new world to the old world 44. How were Japanese and European feudalism similar? The idea of mutual ties and obligations was strong. Feudalism was highly militaristic. Rituals and institutions reinforced feudalism. The system was grounded in political values that embraced all participants. 45. Identify the major result of the Christian Crusades. Europeans were introduced to new technology and cultures. 46. What caused most of the urban growth in western Europe after 1200? the continuing growth of trade and manufacturing 47. Identify the major results of the Black Death. better working conditions for laborers, an end to serfdom, peasant rebellions, fewer jobs available. 48. Why did the empires of West Africa, Ghana, Mali, & Songhai rise to power in the 300s - 1500s? the kings centralized government practices and their subjects gained an advantage in the trans-Sahara trade. 49. What foreign affairs government practice did the Delhi Sultanate & the Aztecs have in common? Tribute system 50. What kind of government did the Gupta dynasty in India provide? a solid centralized government 4 51. The fall of Chinese dynasties was often aided by what action from the peasantry? revolts 52. How did the Medici maintain their cultural hegemony in Tuscany? through control of the Florence art guild 53. What explains the early existence of "Africanity" ? The Bantu migrations 54. Compare the importance of the Code of Hammurabi and the Justinian Code. The importance of each was that they attempted to organize laws in ways that people could understand. 55. Who of these led Muslim soldiers against Europeans in the Crusades? Saladin 56. Identify the 3 things Marco Polo described during his stay at Kublai Khan’s court which were unknown in Europe? use of paper money and coal and the practice of frequent bathing 57. In the mid-1300s, where did Mansa Musa create a strong centralized Islamic government? Mali 58. Before 800 C.E., which laws allowed women to own property, inherit belongings, & keep their dowries ? Islamic law 60. The competing power structure of regional warrior aristocrats.was a problem common to which 3 empires? Abbasids, Ottomans, and Mughals 61. How is the introduction of papermaking into Europe is an example of cultural diffusion? It came from China by way of the Eurasian trade route.