US Diplomatic Decisions – 1919 to 1941 Analyze the potential consequences of these decisions in light of international events during this period in history: ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► Nov 1919: US Senate rejected Versailles Treaty “Return to Normalcy”: 1920-1932 – US ISOLATIONISM “RED SCARE” – 1919 and 1920 – Fear of communists in America Immigration Restrictions (1921 and 1924) Quotas on immigrants from certain nations Washington Naval Conferences (1920-1922) 4, 5 and 9 Power Pacts The Dawes Plan (1924) – US “bailout” for Germany Kellogg-Briand Pact – 1928 – international agreement not to use war as in instrument of foreign policy; this would “guarantee” world peace Hawley-Smoot Tariff – 1930: high tariff hurt international trade; made depression worse 1931: Japan invaded Manchuria1931 Stimson Doctrine: ► US would not recognize a nation’s acquisition of land by use of force 1932: Lausanne Conference: Because of global depression, this suspended loan repayments and reparations US Foreign Policy Responses After Hitler’s Rise to Power 1933: Good Neighbor Policy (Herbert Hoover’s idea…) To improve relations damaged by “big stick policy” in Latin America ► 1933: Diplomatic recognition of the USSR Diplomatic relations between the US and USSR begin for the first time. A reaction to rising Fascist nations in Europe. ► 1934: Tydings-McDuffie Act Philippines promised their independence by 1946. ► 1934: Reciprocal Trade Act Reduced the US tariff if its international trading partners did the same. ► 1934-5: The Nye Commission Government committee that concluded US involvement in WW 1 was caused by “war profiteers” (“Merchants of Death”) who traded with belligerents between 1914 and 1917. ►US would not make the same mistake twice… ► US Diplomatic Responses to Global Aggression: 1935-1939 ► 1935: Italian invasion of Ethiopia: Nye Report is issued, 1st NEUTRALITY ACT (arms embargo on belligerents) ► 1936: Germany retakes the Rhineland , and Spanish Civil War begins: 2nd NEUTRALITY ACT (added: no loans to belligerents) ► 1937: Japanese invasion of China and “Panay Incident”: 3rd NEUTRALITY ACT (added: no trade without “cash and carry”) QUARANTINE speech : FDR told of a “disease” that had to be quarantined; the disease was “FASCISM”. 1938: Austrian “Anschluss”, Rome-Berlin Axis, Anti-Comintern Pact, the Sudetenland and Czechoslovakia: NO DIPLOMATIC MOVES BY US ► ► 1939: September 1: Germany invaded Poland and the USSR occupied Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia and Finland AND it’s “part” of Eastern Poland: “America First Committee”: strong isolationist “pressure” group 4th NEUTRALITY ACT (lifted arms embargo on cash and carry basis) June 1940 to June 1941: The War and US ‘Neutrality’ Continue... ►Selective Service Act (September) peace-time military draft; preparing to raise an army “just in case” ►Destroyers for Bases (September) GB got US naval destroyers, US got use of British naval bases around the world ►Lend-Lease Act (December) US supplied nations fighting fascism (included USSR)-US became the “arsenal of democracy” ►The Four Freedoms Speech (January ‘41) Freedom of speech/expression, freedom of worship, freedom from want, freedom from fear. ►ABC-1 Talks (January-March ‘41) Secret meetings between FDR and British PM Winston Churchill. Defeating Germany was the priority if the war became “two theater” war. (“Europe first” or “Get Hitler First” strategy) ►The ATLANTIC CHARTER (July 1941) ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► No territorial gains were to be sought by USA or Britain. Pledge to liberate AXIS-occupied lands; “Territorial adjustments must be in accordance with the wishes of the peoples concerned”; Trade barriers were to be lowered; Promote global economic cooperation and advancement of social welfare; Freedom from want and fear; Freedom of the seas; Disarmament of aggressor nations; postwar common disarmament.