U. S. Foreign Policy From Peculiar Isolationism to Global War, 1920-1941 Peculiar Isolationism • U. S. didn’t join L. of N., but kept and observer there. • U. S. had high tariffs, but Charles Dawes headed a Reparations Adjustment Commission. • U. S. rejected World Court, but hosted Washington Armaments Conference (5 power treaty, 4 power treaty, and 9 power treaty) • Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) Good Neighbor Policy • J. Reuben Clark memorandum: renounced intervention in Lat. America via Monroe Doctrine (1928) • Roosevelt supported 1933 Pan. Am. Conference Resolution renouncing interventionism • 1934—Marines withdrawn from Nicaragua and Haiti and Platt Amendment (protectorate) over Cuba abrogated • Brief interregnum between TR and Cold War. Destruction of WWI Peace Settlements • Japan occupied Manchuria (1931) • U. S. backing of Open Door is hollow; Japan occupied China proper in 1937 • Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in 1935 • Hitler remilitarized the Rhineland in 1936 • Japan and Germany withdraw from League of Nations in 1933 Neutrality Acts • Neutrality Act of 1935—no sale of weapons where state of war exists • Neutrality Act amended in ’36—no loans to belligerents. • Neutrality Act amended in ’37 to cover Civil Wars (Sp. Civil War) • 2d Neutrality Act ’37—all of the above, plus no U. S. travel on belligerent’s ships, no armed U. S. merchant ships; cash-and carry on non-military goods to belligerents at President’s discretion. Retreat from Isolation • FDR didn’t invoke c & c in China under 2d Neutrality Act • Ludlow Amendment—nat’l referendum to declare war—almost passed congress in 1938 • 3rd Neutrality Act (1939)—cash and carry for arms and food; U. S. ships couldn’t travel to designated war zones (real retreat from 1937 act) Expanding Axis • Anschluss between Germany and Austria (1938) • Sudetenland Crisis (1938) • Blitzkrieg vs. Poland, September 1, 1939—France and Britain declare war on Germany • Phony War yields to new Blitzkrieg in 1940— Denmark attacked (April 9); France surrendered (June 22); Miracle at Dunkirk (June); London Blitz (July 1940) U. S. Response • Increased defense spending ($17 billion in 1940) • National Defense Research Committee— created OSRAD and Manhattan Project • Burke-Wadworth Peacetime Draft • Destroyers for Bases deal • FDR wins 3rd term over America Firsters and Wendell Willkie Arsenal of Democracy • Lend-Lease (January 1941) • Lend-Lease Aide extended to Russia in early days of Barbarossa • August 1941—Atlantic Charter—war aims: selfdetermination for all peoples; equal access to raw materials; economic cooperation; freedom of the seas; new system of general security. • Shoot on Sight orders following Greer (Sept.); Merchantmen armed following Ruben James (Nov.) Japan’s Greater East Asia CoProsperity Sphere • Japan continues conquest of China and builds airfields into Indochina. • July 2, 1940—U. S. loans $ to China and Congress authorized FDR to restrict export of arms and strategic material to Japan • Sept. 27, 1940, Tokyo, Berlin, Rome Axis • Jap. Signed non-Aggression Pact w/ Soviets, April 13, 1941 • Japan placed Indochina under protectorate • FDR froze Japanese assets in U. S.; stopped oil shipments; merged Philippine army w/ U. S. army. The Coming of War in Pacific • Militarists dominated Japan’s cabinet; gamble on getting Indonesian oil by destroying U. S. military presence in Pacific • Operation Winds—Destroy Pacific fleet so it can’t come to aid of Philippines • Dec. 7, 1941—three U. S. battleships sunk, one grounded, one capsized: 150 U. S. planes destroyed and 2,400 soldiers and citizens killed • U. S. declared war on Japan on Dec. 8; Italy and Germany declare war on U. S. on Dec. 11.