US Diplomacy between 1919 and 1941

US Diplomacy between 1919 and 1941
Using your textbook, the AMSCO AP US
History review book and the
information in the next few slides,
complete the assignment handout.
US Diplomatic Decisions – 1919 to 1941
Analyze the potential consequences of these decisions in light of
international events during this period in history:
Nov 1919: US Senate rejected Versailles Treaty and League of Nations
“Return to Normalcy”: 1920-1932
 Independent Internationalism
“RED SCARE” – fear of communism and anarchism in US (1919 and 1920)
Immigration Restrictions
 Emergency Quota Act (1921), Immigration Act of 1924
Washington Naval Conferences (1920-1922)
 4 power pact (Imperialism in Asia)
 5 power pact (Navies-5:5:3:1.67:1.67)
 9 power pact (Open Door in China)
The Dawes Plan (1924) – US “bailout” for Germany
Kellogg-Briand Pact – 1928
Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922) and Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930)
1931: Japan invaded Manchuria
 Stimson Doctrine: US would not recognize a nation’s acquisition of land by use of
1932: Lausanne Conference: Suspended loan repayments and reparations
US Foreign Policy Responses After Hitler’s Rise to Power
Is there a “hidden agenda” of US diplomacy?
1933: Good Neighbor Policy (Herbert Hoover’s idea…)
 To improve relations damaged by “big stick policy” in Latin America
1933: Diplomatic recognition of the USSR
 Diplomatic relations between the US and USSR begin for the first time.
1933: London Conference
 to stabilize world economies; US decided not to participate
1934: Tydings-McDuffie Act
 Philippines independence by 1946.
1934: Reciprocal Trade Act
 Reduced the US tariff if its international trading partners did the same.
1934-5: The Nye Commission
 Government committee that concluded US involvement in WW 1 was
caused by “war profiteers” (“Merchants of Death”) who traded with
belligerents between 1914 and 1917.
 US would not make the same mistake twice…
US Diplomatic Responses to Global Aggression: 1935-1939
1935: Italian invasion of Ethiopia:
 Nye Report is issued, 1st NEUTRALITY ACT (arms embargo on belligerents)
1936: Germany retakes the Rhineland , and Spanish Civil War begins:
 2nd NEUTRALITY ACT (added: no loans to belligerents)
1937: Japanese invasion of China and “Panay Incident”:
 3rd NEUTRALITY ACT (added: no trade without “cash and carry”)
 QUARANTINE speech (plus: “moral embargo”)
1938: Austrian “Anschluss”, Rome-Berlin Axis, Anti-Comintern Pact, the
Sudetenland and Czechoslovakia: NO DIPLOMATIC MOVES BY US
1938: The Ludlow Resolution: a national referendum on declaration of war
1939: September 1: Germany invaded Poland and the USSR occupied Latvia,
Lithuania, Estonia and Finland AND it’s “part” of Eastern Poland:
 “America First Committee”: strong isolationist “pressure” group
 4th NEUTRALITY ACT (lifted arms embargo on cash and carry basis)
 Pan-American Conference: Declaration of Panama
June 1940 to June 1941:
The War and US ‘Neutrality’ Continue...
►Alien Registration Act (June)
all resident aliens had to be registered with the US Government; had to explain their
political beliefs to US officials.
►Pan-American Conference: Declaration of Havana (July)
“Aggression against one nation in the Western Hemisphere was aggression against all”.
►Selective Service Act (September)
peace-time military draft
►Destroyers for Bases (September)
GB got US naval destroyers, US got use of British naval bases around the world
►Lend-Lease Act (December)
US supplied nations fighting fascism (included USSR)-US became the “arsenal of
►The Four Freedoms Speech (January ‘41)
 Freedom of speech/expression, freedom of worship, freedom from want, freedom from
►ABC-1 Talks (January-March ‘41)
Secret meetings between FDR and British PM Winston Churchill. Defeating Germany
was the priority if the war became “two theater” war. (“Europe first” or “Get Hitler First”
July 1941: The Atlantic Charter
US and GB “secret war aims”
No territorial gains were to be sought by USA or Britain.
Pledge to liberate AXIS-occupied lands;
“Territorial adjustments must be in accordance with the
wishes of the peoples concerned”;
Trade barriers were to be lowered;
Promote global economic cooperation and advancement of
social welfare;
Freedom from want and fear;
Freedom of the seas;
Disarmament of aggressor nations; postwar common
How can these provisions be enforced?
 Does this look familiar to you?