# Background Information

Week 2
Process Skills:
Scientific Method &amp;
Graphing notes
What are the steps of the
scientific method?
1. Background Information
2. Problem
3. Hypothesis
4. Materials
5. Procedure
6. Data
7. Conclusion
them one at a
time!
Background Information
 Background information is
information that you research before
 It might be information you already
know!
 This information helps you clearly
begin conducting experiments.
 This might include safety
information!
Example: If you were doing an
experiment with M&amp;M’s, would
you have any Background
information?
Sure you would!
1. What colors do they come in?
2. What types of M&amp;M’s are there?
What else can you come up with
You see, you are
Problem
A problem is the question
you (the scientist) plan to
scientific investigation.
Think of this problem about Open
House?
Problem: What will happen if
house?
A Problem is always stated as a
question. It is the question that you
want to solve or answer during your
scientific investigation.
Hypothesis
The hypothesis is an educated
guess or explanation that
problem. This is what you
A hypothesis should be
written as an IF/THEN
statement!
 Cause and effect
 When one thing happens it causes
another thing to happen.
 Example: If I run in the hall, Then I
will get hurt.
Let’s Practice
 Write a hypothesis to the following problems:
1. What will happen if I don’t wear safety goggles in
the lab?
2. What will happen if I don’t complete my
homework?
3. How many drops of water can a penny hold?
4. If we fill a baby food jar with water, then how
many drops of water will it take to cause the jar to
overflow?
Materials
This is the list of supplies
and equipment that you
will need to prove
whether
or not your
hypothesis
is correct.
Rules for listing materials
1. Be descriptive! (tell me the size, shape,
color etc.)
2. Be precise! (Say 50ml of water and not a little
bit of water)
3. Don’t forget what you will need to clean up!
4. If you need a liquid, you’ll need something
to hold the liquid in.
Procedure
The list of steps that you will
follow to prove whether or not
or rejected.
These will be numbered steps,
in exactly the order that you
List each step separately and be
as descriptive as possible.
Data
Needs to be displayed
in charts or graphs
and titles
AND NOW….
THE BIGGIE….
Conclusion
Conclusion
The Conclusion is the answer to the problem, that
you discovered during your scientific investigation.
The Conclusion has 5 parts…
1. The hypothesis was accepted/rejected.
2. It Stated…
3. To test the hypothesis…
4. During the test it was observed…
5. Therefore…
You should practice
writing more
conclusions, we will
be writing a lot of
conclusions through
out the school year.
Great Job!
Now let’s review.
1. List the 8 steps of the scientific method in order.
2. Which step of the scientific method is the
questions that arise during the lab experiment?
3. Which step of the scientific method comes
before procedure?
Now let’s say the 8 steps of the
scientific method all together!
1. Background Information
2. Problem
3. Hypothesis
4. Materials
5. Procedure
6. Data
7. Conclusion
Congratulations!
You are almost
scientific
method test!
How to set up successful graphs in Science class!
How to set up your graph!
How to set up your graph!
Y Axis
(This is for
variable)
How to set up your graph!
X Axis
(This is for your
independent
variable)
TAILS
Teachers’s Favorite
Singer
T - Title
TAILS
Teachers’s Favorite
Singer
T - Title
A - Axis
Y Axis =
Dependent
Variable
X Axis =
Independent
Variable
TAILS
Teachers’s Favorite
Singer
Decide on an appropriate
scale for each axis.
Choose a scale that lets
you make the graph as
large as possible for your
paper and data
T - Title
A – Axis
S – Scale
How to determine scale
Favorite Number of
Singer
Teachers
Toby
Keith
22
Elvis
11
Sting
5
Sinatra
2
 Scale is determined by
number.
 In this case your scale
would be from 2 – 22.
How to determine Intervals
Favorite Number of
Singer
Teachers
 The interval is
Toby
Keith
 In this case your scale
22
Elvis
11
Sting
5
Sinatra
2
would be from 2 – 22
and you want the
scale to fit the graph.
 The best interval
would be to go by 5’s.
TAILS
Teachers’s Favorite
Singer
The amount of space between one
number and the next or one type of
data and the next on the graph.
The interval is just as important as
the scale
T – Title
A – Axis
I – Interval
Choose an interval that lets you
make the graph as large as possible
S – Scale
TAILS
Teachers’s Favorite
Singer
25
T – Title
20
15
A – Axis
10
5
I – Interval
0
S – Scale
TAILS
Teachers’s Favorite
Singer
Number of Teachers
25
T – Title
20
15
A – Axis
10
5
0
LABELSingers
your
bars orGive
datathe bars a general
pointslabel. What do those words
I – Interval
L – Labels
S – Scale
When to use…
 Bar graphs
 Used to show data that are not continuous.
 Allows us to compare data like amounts or frequency or
categories
 Allow us to make generalizations about the data
 Help us see differences in data
 Line Graphs
 For continuous data
 useful for showing trends over time