Class Start - Moore Public Schools

• Page 387 activity using groups of
3. You may need to move to make
the groups of 3. Do so quietly and
quickly. You need to record this in
notebook as a class start and each
player needs to record the same
group results. You will have 12-15
minutes for this activity.
Voyage of the H.M.S Beagle
• Darwin traveled with a crew on the ship
the H.M.S Beagle. Which was considered
one of the most important voyages in the
history of science.
• During travels, Darwin made numerous
observations and collected evidence that
led him to propose a revolutionary
hypothesis about the way life changes.
This hypothesis, is now supported by
evidence and has become the theory of
Chapter 15-1 (pages 369-372)
• Biological diversity is the variety of
living things.
• Evolution: Adaptations or changes over
time by which modern organisms have
descended from ancient organisms.
• Theory: well supported and testable
explanation of phenomena that have
happened/occurred in nature.
• Fold piece of paper in half hamburger style.
Fold again in half to make 4 square box on
both pieces of paper (white and notebook).
Outline paper folds with pencil/marker.
• You are going to make a foldable of the four
main scientist to work on the theory of
evolution. You will use these scientist:
• Hutton
• Lyell
• Lamarck
• Darwin
• You are going to put the main concepts and
ideas these scientist discovered and
worked on about evolution using pages 373377. We will go over the details tomorrow
and be sure that you have all the needed
concepts as your class start.
• Well educated and had a strong interest in
natural history.
• Contributed more to the understanding of
evolution than any other scientist.
• Born in England on February 12, 1809.
• Knew the importance of evidence to a
• Published a book called the Origin of
Species that proposed the theory of natural
selection and evolution.
• Used many other scientist work for his
• Proposed a theory that geological
forces shaped the Earth.
• That layers of rock form slowly over
• Landforms are shaped by natural
• Earth was more than a few thousand
years old, more like millions of years old.
• Wrote a book called Principles of
Geology that Darwin used on his voyage.
• Explanation of how geological features
could be built up or torn down over time.
• Lyell’s work influenced Darwin in that: if
the earth could change over time then
life could also, and that it would take a
great amount of time for the changes,
so the Earth was very old.
• One of the first scientist to recognize that living things
change over time and that all species were descended from
other species.
• Realized species were adapted to their environment. (true)
• Proposed that selective use or disuse of an organ can result
in loss or gain of a trait over time. (false)
• Continually changing features and traits over time. (true)
• Can alter shape or size of an organ. (true)
• Thought acquired traits could be inherited. (false)
• All organisms have an innate tendency towards complexity
and perfection. (false)
• Many of his hypothesis were incorrect, but he paved the
way for many later scientists in the study of evolution and
to study that organisms are adapted to their environment.
• Published a book called the Essays of
Populations, stating that babies were
being born faster than those dying.
• He reasoned that if human population
continued to grow there would not be
sufficient living space and food for
everyone. The problem is he did not
take into his reasoning disease and
•Name 2 facts or
things you learned
from the video.
15-3 (Pages 378-386)
• Ideas about species diversity and the
process would later be called evolution.
• Origin of Species: book by Darwin that
proposed the mechanisms for evolution
that he called natural selection.
Evidence that evolution has taken place
for millions of years and continues in all
living organisms.
• Earth age is about 4.5 billion years old.
Inherited Variation and Artificial
• Most important insight was that members
of each species vary from member to
• Genetic Variation: heritable variation in
plants and animals. Improve breeding by only
choosing the fastest, strongest, and
largest…. Later called Artificial Selection.
It is where nature provides the variation
and the humans select the variation.
Natural Selection
• Struggle for Existence: members of each
species compete regularly for to obtain food,
living space, mates, and other necessities of
• Fitness: How well suited an organism is to its
environment. Ability to survive and reproduce in
its specific environment. Fitness is a result of
• Adaptations: inherited characteristic that
increases an organism’s chance of survival.
Adaptations can be anatomical or structural, or
a physiological process or function.
Natural Selection
• Survival of the Fittest: Individuals
with characteristics not suited for their
environment or have low-levels of
fitness either die or have few offspring.
Individuals with characteristics that
are better suited to their environment
or have adaptations that enable fitness,
survive and reproduce most
Natural Selection
• Darwin’s survival of the fittest is now
known as natural selection.
• Natural Selection: only certain members
of the population produce new individuals.
The traits being selected and therefore
increasing over time contribute to an
organism’s fitness in its environment. It
also takes place without human control or
direction. These are observed changes in a
population over many years.
Natural Selection
• Decent with Modification: living species
have descended over time. They have
produced organisms that have different
structures, established different
niches, or occupy different habitats.
• Common descent: all species, living and
extinct, were derived from common
ancestors. A single tree of life.
Evidence of Evolution
1. Fossil Record
2. Geographic Distribution of Living
Species (common species to a common
3. Homologous Body Structures
4. Similarities in Embryology (similar
embryo development and look similar in
many ways)
• Help organisms to survive in different
environments. Same/similar structure or same
development, but different function. (wing, claw,
hand, paw, flipper)
• Vestigial Organs: traces of an organ
that is reduced in size so much that it is
a trace of the homologous structure.
• Write the summary of Darwin’s
Theory on page 386. Also, make note
of the strengths and weaknesses of
his theory.
•PAGES 389
AND 391