15.2 Darwin’s Thinking Notes Nevada State Science Content Standard: L.12.D.1 Students know organisms can be classified based on evolutionary relationships. E/S Objective: Students will state how Hutton and Lyell described geological change. Set: Now that you have a little background into Charles Darwin, lets look at some of the ideas of others that shaped his thinking. Key Vocabulary None Page 374 *James Hutton was a scientist who attempted to explain how rock layers form and change over time. * James Hutton’s and Charles Lyell’s work suggested that Earth is many millions of years old. * Hutton thought that rocks from the sea floor could be pushed up very high to form mountains or mountain ranges. Page 375 * In the 1800s, Charles Lyell emphasized that past geological events must be explained in terms of processes observable today. * What did Darwin learn from reading the work of Hutton and Lyell? The Earth is very old. Page 376 * Lamarck proposed that organisms have an innate tendency toward complexity and perfection. * Lamarck’s theory of evolution includes the concept that new organs in a species appear as a result of the actions of organisms as they use or fail to use body structures. * Although his idea was incorrect, Lamarck was one of the first people to propose a scientific explanation for evolution. * According to Lamarck, evolution resulted from the inheritance of acquired traits. Page 377 * Malthus presented the idea that only famine, disease, and war could prevent the endless growth of human populations. * The economist Thomas Malthus suggested that there would soon be insufficient food for the growing human population. * When babies are born faster than people are dying, the size of the population grows or increases.