Ancient Greece Unit Test Review Sheet 1. How did the Greek culture get spread all the way to Asia? Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire and built cities modeled after Greek cities. 2 & 5 How would you describe the geography of Greece? Greece has a very mountainous, rocky landscape. It was difficult for Greeks to travel because of the mountains. 3. What is an acropolis? A high hill that is the high point of the city-state and usually contains a Greek temple. 4. How were Athens and Sparta different? Athens: focused more on education, only men were citizens, had a navy, relied on trade Sparta: focused more on the military and physical strength, women were citizens and had many rights, conquered places to get what they needed Main Exports of Ancient Greece Why did Greeks need to trade with other cultures? They exported olives and grapes! Interdependence: When two locations depend or rely on each other for resources or anything else they need to survive. Athens needed grain, therefore they traded wine and olive oil for grain grown in a colony outside of mainland Greece. At the same time, the colony needed olive oil and wine, therefore they traded their grain for the olive oil and wine produced in Athens. It was a trade agreement each location had with the other so that they could get what they needed to survive. Defining Governments Monarchy: ruled by a king/queen who was born into power Tyranny: A ruler who rules by the use of force Oligarchy: a small group rules (Sparta) Ancient Athens has a direct democracy— voting is done by a show of hands or on secret ballot at the Assembly, all citizens show up in one place to vote on laws. The United States has a representative democracy—citizens elect representatives to vote on laws for them. What war involved the Greek colonies on the coast of Asia Minor? The Persian Wars Why did Alexander want to spread Greek culture? He was educated by an Athenian philosopher, Aristotle, and he always had an appreciation for Greek culture. What happened to Alexander’s empire after he died? It was divided by his generals. Why were the Greek city-states able to have victory over the Persians in the Persian Wars? The Greek strategy included using GEOGRAPHY to their advantage. Why did Athens and Sparta fight in the Peloponnesian War? Athens was getting too powerful and dominant and Sparta wanted to stop them. Why do historians consider the Mycenaeans to be the first Greeks? They were the first to speak the Greek language How would you describe Greek art and sculpture? Made to look like gods and goddesses Statues of people were very realistic What does HELLENISTIC mean? Greek-like This was the culture that Alexander the Great created by blending Greek with Persian and Egyptian cultures What is the Parthenon? A famous Greek building (temple) 12. What are some characteristics of Greek Architecture? Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian columns Marble exteriors Triangular Pediment What was the main contribution of the Greek philosophers to the world? Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were philosophers who used logic and reasoning, rather than the work of the gods to explain events. 13. What was one aspect of Greek culture that was common in all Greek city-states? Medicine Hippocrates was from ancient Greece and was the first modern doctor. He believed illness came from natural causes rather than punishment from the gods. Today, doctors take the Hippocratic Oath, which promises they will always work to the best of their knowledge. Mathematics Achievement Euclid invented many geometry rules Relevance Today Pythagoras invented algebra formula a2 + b2= c2 These geometry rules are still taught to all students in school today Science Achievement Charting the Universe (Ptolemy) Measuring the circumference of the earth Relevance Today Helped later scientists to understand that stars and planets move Gave later scientists clues about the size of the earth Architecture Achievements Ionic, Doric, Corinthian columns Relevance Today Triangular Pediment Still used on many government buildings, churches, houses, and schools today Technology Achievements Archimedes’ water screw Lighthouse (Alexandria) Relevance Today Farmers in many countries today still use water screws to bring water to their fields We still use lighthouses today to help guide and keep ships out at sea safe at night Literature We still read and enjoy Greek myths, such as Hercules and epic poems by Homer, The Iliad and The Odyssey. 9. The geography of Greece influenced the daily life of the Greeks. Identify two examples of geographic features in Greece and explain how each feature influenced their culture or way of life. Gave Greeks protection from invaders Kept city-states isolated from each other. Made travel difficult Mountains How geography influenced Greek Life Greeks were expert sailors, fishermen, and shipbuilders Made trade with surrounding islands and coastal colonies easy Seas/Islands How geography influenced Greek life Rocky Soil Grew grapes and olives easily Trade of grapes and olives was the basis for the Greek economy 11. Contrast the roles of Athenian and Spartan women. Athenian Women *seldom left their homes *Not citizens; no major role in society. *No education Spartan Women *Could freely leave their homes *Could own land, run a business *Practiced running, wrestling to gain strength for child bearing 15. What caused the Peloponnesian War to begin? How did the wars affect all of Greece? Sparta declared war on Athens because Athens was spending a lot of money on beautifying their city-state. Athens also wanted to create an Athenian empire. Most of Greece was involved in this war and the fighting between the city-states after the war weakened them and left them open for attack and takeover.