Persuasion and propaganda

• Logos is a type of appeal that depends on
rational logic.
 To be clear, any time something just makes sense, it
is appealing to logic.
 Effective because: Facts, statistics, and similar
information makes an argument believable.
• A Snickers bar has 280 calories and 30 grams of
sugar. That’s not a very healthy food for breakfast.
• When the temperature is below freezing, you should
wear warm clothes.
• Pathos is a type of appeal that utilizes (or plays upon)
the emotions of the audience or listener.
• Effective because: When something makes us angry, sad, or
happy, we are more likely to “get on board”.
• Proper use of pathos should rely on not only words but also
images, sounds, etc.
Example: ASPCA
• Ethos is an appeal based on justice or ethics.
• Credibility is based on trust for an authority.
• Effective because: We are more likely to be persuaded when
we trust the speaker, believe the person to be credible,
and/or that person is in a position of authority.
Example: As your doctor,
I believe it is extremely
important that you stop
eating junk food and
begin exercising daily.
• Topic: The main focus of the piece
• What is the main idea?
• Audience: The receiver(s) of information
• Who is being targeted?
• Purpose: The intention of the author
• Why did the author create it?
1. The intended audience of the ad, speech, etc.
2. Rhetoric techniques applied and their effects on the
3. The behavior or belief that the rhetoric attempts to achieve.
The caption: “In this
business, you’ve got to be
decisive. So I choose
milk. Some studies
suggest that teens who
choose milk instead of
sugary drinks tend to be
leaner, and the protein
helps build muscle. So eat
right, exercise and drink 3
glasses of lowfat or fatfree milk a day. Always
music to my ears.”
“Super. That’s how milk makes you feel. The calcium
helps bones grow strong, so even if you’re not from
Krypton you can have bones of steel.”
Look at the text given and answer the following questions:
1. Who is the author/speaker? For what is he/she known?
2. What is the main idea, or topic, of the text?
3. What is the time period? How do the events of the time influence
the text and the speaker?
4. Who is the intended audience?
5. What is the author’s point of view on the topic? What is he/she
trying to get the audience to do or believe?
6. What persuasive strategies does the author use? (Logos, Ethos,
Pathos) How do you know?
7. How does the author organize the text? (most important to least
important, chronologically, etc.) How does this organization
help the argument/persuasion?
Throughout my years, I've been fortunate to spend Sundays with my
family. Our Sunday dinners were referred to as "The Family Ritual." I'm happy to
say it is still the case with the extended families, although diminishing to some
As the president of Apollo Liquor, I can report that our employees also
have enjoyed the same privileges. Their performance, loyalty and success of our
business may have something to do with their having Sundays off.
Would our business improve that much by opening one more day? Would
the extra tax revenue be worth it? How long would the Apollo Liquor store be the
only one closed on Sunday?
In my opinion, some of our social problems may be symptomatic of not
having enough family time. Ideally, but not realistically, Americans should have a
chance for one day with their families because Americans are the hardest working
people in the world.
Europeans enjoy long weekends by business being closed, except in tourist
Nick Kolas