Environmental Problems and Solutions


Environmental Problems and Solutions

Environmental Pollution and Its


Environmental Pollution and Its Effects

• One of the greatest problems that the world is facing today is that of environmental pollution

• Increasing with every passing year and causing grave and irreparable damage to the earth.

• Environmental pollution consists of five basic types of pollution, namely, air, water, soil, noise and light.

Air pollution

Air pollution

• Air pollution is by far the most harmful form of pollution in our environment.

• Air pollution is cause by the injurious smoke emitted by cars, buses, trucks, trains, and factories, namely sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides.

• Even smoke from burning leaves and cigarettes are harmful to the environment causing a lot of damage to man and the atmosphere.

• Evidence of increasing air pollution is seen in lung cancer, asthma, allergies, and various breathing problems along with severe and irreparable damage to flora and fauna.

• Even the most natural phenomenon of migratory birds has been hampered, with severe air pollution preventing them from reaching their seasonal metropolitan destinations of centuries.

Water pollution

Water pollution

• Of course water is very important for our society, and if we start saving it.

• We will pay less because we consume less and of course we will keep our environment clean.

• After we use water, it is not the same as it was before. It is polluted…

• Water pollution caused industrial waste products released into lakes, rivers, and other water bodies, has made marine life no longer hospitable.

• Humans pollute water with large scale disposal of garbage, flowers, ashes and other household waste.

• Acid rain further adds to water pollution in the water.

• In many rural areas one can still find people bathing and cooking in the same water, making it incredibly filthy.

• In addition to these, thermal pollution and the depletion of dissolved oxygen aggravate the already worsened condition of the water bodies.

• Water pollution can also indirectly occur as an offshoot of soil pollution – through surface runoff and leaching to groundwater.

Noise pollution

Noise pollution

• Noise pollution, soil pollution and light pollution too are the damaging the environment at an alarming rate.

• Noise pollution include aircraft noise, noise of cars, buses, and trucks, vehicle horns, loudspeakers.

• Industry noise, as well as high-intensity sonar effects which are extremely harmful for the environment.

• Maximum noise pollution occurs due to one of modern science’s best discoveries – the motor vehicle, which is responsible for about ninety percent of all unwanted noise worldwide.

Here are some typical sound levels measured in following surroundings, arranged in order of level of sound:

• Library - 35 dB

• Office - 60- 65

• Normal traffic noise 70 - 80 dB

• Airport (plane take off) - 120 dB

Soil pollution

Soil pollution

• Soil pollution, which can also be called soil contamination, is a result of acid rain, polluted water, fertilizers etc., which leads to bad crops.

• Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground storage tank leakage which releases heavy contaminants into the soil.

• These may include hydrocarbons, heavy metals,

MTBE, herbicides, pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons.

Light Pollution

Light Pollution

• Light Pollution includes light trespass, overillumination and astronomical interference.

Effects on animals: Light pollution stops migrating birds of having any way of seeing the moon and stars.

• They use them to navigate the direction of their migration, therefore not being able to migrate to the correct place.

• Also, sea turtles do not come to shore and nest as often, because they are afraid of the lights.

• It also affects animals eyes as a flash of camera weakens the eyesight of animals.

Effects on humans: Glare causes sleep problems in humans.

• Too much light in an apartment shining in from a nearby billboard will disturb their sleep.

• Also science is being affected by light pollution.

• Astronomers have no way of observing, or making discoveries with too much light to block the night sky.

• It also causes headache as when light directly falls into our eyes and affects the sensory nerves.

Light pollution is the intrusion of unwanted or unneeded artificial light into a man-made or natural environment.

• A variety of somewhat separate phenomena comprise the overall issue of pollution due to excess artificial light:

Domestic Pollution

Domestic Pollution

• At a domestic level, exposure to smoke while cooking can be curtailed by the adoption of cleaner fuels, improved stoves, better ventilation and the use of biogas.

• The choice of the correct species of tree as fuel.

• For example, Acacia nilotica (babul) and

Casuarinas, produces less smoke as compared to species like mango and neem.

• Utilization of charcoal is relatively safer than burning firewood.

• Utilization of smokeless stoves will reduce exposure to smoke.

Automobile Pollution

• Regular tests for automobile emissions should be made compulsory.

• Environmental groups should pressurize state governments to bring in this legislation.

• Non-leaded fuel alone should be sold.

Environmental groups must get together to pressurize the government.

• To make automobile manufacturers modify their designs to suit non-leaded fuel and stop the sale of leaded fuel.

• People should be encouraged to share their vehicles or use public transport.

• This would mean lesser traffic on the road, and thus, lesser pollution.

Industrial Pollution

Industrial Pollution

• Small pressure groups should be formed to influence industries to install filters, electrostatic precipitators, scrubbers, etc., to control atmospheric pollution.

• Education is the most important solution

• Plan campaigns in schools and colleges on simple issues such as the ill-effects of smoking.

• substitutes for domestic fuel consumption such as smokeless chulhas, etc.

• Mobilize your immediate locality to protest against local polluting industries.

Health Effects of Pollution

The solution

Group solution

Group solution

• There are now several groups that are trying to prevent light pollution.

• Light pollution first made news in 1964, when an observatory was specially placed just to avoid light pollution.

• However, it wasn’t brought to the attention of most people until June 6, 2002.

• When the Czech Republic passed the world’s first light pollution law.

• Since then, light pollution is slowly being recognized by the general public as a major problem.

Individual solution

• You can lower the amount of light pollution by having lights off when they are not needed.

• You can also shield yourself from this pollution by putting curtains on a window facing the street or any other disturbing light source.

Environmental Protection

Environmental Protection

• It is now time to join hands across the globe to protect and preserve our environment.

• Thereby safeguard human health along with the natural environment: air, water, and land.

We need to preserve our wetlands, our rainforests, our farmlands and arctic zones.

• And we need to save the endangered species.

Greenhouse Effect

Greenhouse Effect

• The Greenhouse effect is the rise in the temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere.

• Due to certain gases like, methane, water vapour, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide, which trap the energy and heat from the sun.

• Without these gasses, the heat would escape reducing the temperature of the atmosphere.

• These gases are commonly known as

Greenhouse gases, because they help to maintain the Earth’s average temperature.

• Simply put, it is a natural process which make the Earth’s atmosphere just right for life forms to flourish.

Greenhouse Gases

Greenhouse Gases

• Carbon dioxide () is one of the greenhouse gases. It consists of one carbon atom with an oxygen atom bonded to each side.

• When its atoms are bonded tightly together, the carbon dioxide molecule can absorb infrared radiation and the molecule starts to vibrate.

• Eventually, the vibrating molecule will emit the radiation again, and it will likely be absorbed by yet another greenhouse gas molecule.

• This absorption-emission-absorption cycle serves to keep the heat near the surface, effectively insulating the surface from the cold of space.

Try combining driving with alternative modes of transportation

• Carpool.

• Walk or ride a bicycle.

• Shop by phone or mail.

• Ride public transit.

• Telecommute.

Driving smart keeps pollution at a minimum

• Accelerate gradually.

• Use cruise control on the highway.

• Obey the speed limit.

• Combine your errands into one trip.

• Keep your car tuned and support the smog check program.

• Don't top off at the gas pumps.

• Replace your car's air filter.

• Keep your tires properly inflated.

Saving the Environment

Saving the Environment

• Saving the environment is not an issue anymore.

• It is a survival truth. Individuals, organizations and governments need to come together.

• And join hands to protect what is left of our planet so that the future is not wiped out before it’s time for curtain call.

Global Warming

Global Warming On The Rise

• Global warming is rapid increase in the temperature of earth's atmosphere and oceans in the past few years.

• The negative effects of Global warming are heat waves, unusual warm weather, ocean warming, rise in sea level, and coastal flooding, warming of

• Arctic and Antarctic zones, changes in the pattern and amount of precipitation.

• Species extinction and melting of the glaciers which have proven to be extremely dangerous.

Pollution and Global Warming