Unit 2: Grammar lesson English 101C Prefixes & suffixes are grammatical “affixes.” We use them to change the meaning of a base word. Prefixes are added before a base word. UN + HAPPY = UNHAPPY Suffixes are added after a base word. HELP + FUL = HELPFUL Prefixes and suffixes can be used at the same time. PRE + HISTORY + IC = PREHISTORIC Prefix meaning examples Prefix meaning examples Anti- against antisocial, antioxidant Hyper- Over, more Hyperactive, hyperdrive Co- with copilot, coworker Non- Not, without Nonviolent, nonsmoking De- Off, away from devalue, deactivate Mis- Wrong or incorrect Misinform, mistrust Dis- not disappear, disregard Pre-, pro- before Precede, project En- Put into enclose, enrich Sub- under Submarine, subatomic Ex- Out of, former Extract, ex-president Trans- across Transmit, transverse Il-, im-, in-, ir- Not, without Illegal, immoral, inadequate, irregular Un- not Unfinished, unhappy, unusual Suffix meaning examples Suffix meaning examples - acy state or quality privacy, democracy -ment condition of argument, refreshment - al act or process of refusal, disposal -ness state of being happiness, kindness -ance, -ence state or quality of maintenance, eminence -sion, -tion state of being transition, concession -er, -or one who trainer, protector -ship position held friendship, fellowship -ism doctrine, belief communism, consumerism -ate become eradicate, agitate - ist, one who chemist, typist -en become enlighten, whiten -ity, -ty quality of ability, cruelty -ize become civilize, santize suffix meaning examples suffix meaning examples -able, -ible capable of being Edible, presentable -ive Having the nature of Creative, festive -al pertaining to Regional, hormonal -less without Endless, helplesss -esque Reminiscent of Picturesque, romanesque -y Characterized by Lazy, sunny -ful Notable for Beautiful, helpful -il, ile Pertaining to, capable of Civil, docile -ic, -ical Pertaining to musical, mystic -ous Full of nauseous, ludricrous -ious, -ous Characterized by hilarious, heinous -ose Full of verbose, glucose -ish -ly Having the attributes of Quickly, lovely Having the quality of girlish, foolish 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Valerie is unable to attend the party The students were misinformed about their homework. The food disappeared from the table. The fireworks illuminated the sky. The veterinarian declawed the cats. When he drinks beer, he acts foolish. Tom ate some bad fish and felt nauseous. The loudness of the speakers hurt my ears. The line for the tickets seemed endless. I like going to festive parties.