Medical Terminology • It is nearly impossible for even the most experienced health professional to be familiar with every medical term. However, knowledge of prefixes, suffixes, and root words is essential. It is vital that every health professional be familiar with the commonly used medical terminology. Word Parts / Building Blocks • Most medical terms are formed by a combination of basic word parts. An understanding of how these parts work together makes interpreting medical language easier. Root Words • usually indicate the part of the body involved • All medical terms must have one or more root words Prefixes • usually indicate location, time, or number - come at the beginning of the word • Not all medical terms have prefixes Suffixes • usually indicate the procedure, disease, or condition - come after the root word • The suffix, when connected to the root word will create a noun, adjective, or verb. • All medical terms have a suffix. Combining Vowel or Combining Form • usually "O" • attached to root word • used to make medical terms easier to pronounce • is NOT used when suffix begins with a vowel • IS used when suffix begins with a consonant Decoding Medical Terms • Start with the suffix and define the suffix. • Go to the prefix and define the prefix. • Then, go to the middle of the word; define the word root, combining form, or both if both exist in the same word. • Combine the definitions to decode the complete medical term or phrase. Putting it together! Prefix + Root Word + Suffix = Medical Term POLY + NEUR + Many Nerves + Inflammation = + ITIS = POLYNEURITIS Inflammation of many nerves Common Medical Prefixes • • • • • • • a - absence of; without Ab- away from Ad- toward, in the direction of Dys- difficult, painful Hyper- over, above, increased Hypo- below, under, decreased Inter- between, among Common Medical Prefixes (cont.) • • • • • • • Intra- within, inside Peri - surrounding, around Poly- many Sub- under, less, below Super- above, excessive, beyond Supra- above, excessive, beyond mal - bad Common Medical Suffixes • • • • • • • • itis – inflammation malacia – softening megaly - enlargement ology - the study of ologist – specialist osis - disease, abnormal condition pathy – disease ac, al, ic – pertaining to Common Medical Root Words • Cardi/o – heart • Col/o - colon • Cost/o – ribs • Enter/o - intestines • Gastr/o – stomach • Hem/o – blood • My/o – muscle • neur/o – nerve • oto – ear • or/o - mouth • Rhin/o – nose • Hepat - liver • Arthr/o – joint • Cephal/o – head • Crani/o - skull • Derm/o, dermat/o, cutane – skin • Nephr/o, ren/o – kidney • Oste/o - bone • Cyst/o – urinary bladder • Splen/o - spleen Common Medical Abbreviations • • • • • • c – with s – without a – before p – after prn – as needed NPO – nothing by mouth Common Medical Abbreviations • • • • • • stat – immediately IV – intravenous (through a vein) q.d. – every day q.i.d – four times a day Rx – prescription Tx - treatment Common Medical Abbreviations • Male • female Communication Connection • A medication is to be taken once every day (q.d.), but a health care provider mistakenly writes q.i.d. on the prescription. What will be the result of writing the incorrect abbreviation?