Female Reproduction PPT - Northern Highlands Regional HS

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Human Sexuality and Family Life
Unit 2 – Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
Puberty in Females
•Pituitary gland release gonadotropic hormones – LH & FSH
•Activate the female gonads which begins producing the
female sex hormones estrogen & progesterone
•Secondary sex characteristics begin – this can include
budding of breasts, auxillary hair development, leading to
menarche around age 13 – usually anovulatory (not
ovulating)
•Other changes as well
KEY TERMS – Female Reproductive System
External terms
• Vulva – describes all external parts
• Labia Majora –outer folds of skin
• Labia Minora – inner folds - Both become sensitive
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•
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•
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during stimulation
Clitoris – located in front of urethra – many blood
vessels & nerve endings
Urethra - connects to urethra -eliminates urine
Vagina – opening to uterus – birth canal
Perineum – field of tissue between vagina & anus
Mons Pubis – pad of tissue covering pubic bone –
some sensitivity – covered w/ pubic hair
Hymen – membrane that sometimes covers
vaginal opening
Internal structures
• Vagina –birth canal – about 3-4 inches deep –
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•
•
nerve endings concentrated near opening
Cervix – lower end of the uterus – located at top
of canal
Uterus – reproductive organ, located top of
vagina between bladder & rectum – about size
of a fist – sheds lining monthly as a part of the
menstrual cycle
Endometrium –lining of uterus – shed during
cycle or supports fertilized egg during pregnancy
Internal structures – cont.
• Bartholin glands – located on sides of canal –
release lubricant into canal
• Fallopian tubes – egg travels down tube toward
uterus – fertilization can take place in lower 1/3
of tube if sperm present
• Fimbriae – fingers of f. tube – move toward
gonads as ovulation takes place – scoops up ova
• Ovaries – female gonads – house sex cell until
mature in structure called “follicle”– females
born with approx 1 million eggs – ovaries
produce sex hormones
Hormones
• Estrogen- causes reproductive organs to
mature into adult shape & size – growth of
auxillary hair & strengthens bones
• w/ progesterone – regulates the menstrual
cycle a & preparing uterus for pregnancy
• Ova – female sex cells – begin to mature
around age 15 – released monthly during
ovulation -
Menstrual Cycle
• Complex combination of hormonal &
physical changes
• Involves FSH & LH
• Based on a 28 day cycle – can vary
• Factors that can affect MC include stress,
diet, travel, exercise, WT gain/loss, illness
• Refer to MC chart for cycle
Problems of Female Repo. System
Problem
What it is?
Symptoms
Treatment
Cystitis
Bladder
infection
Inflammation of
bladder; usually
due to bacterial
infection
Burning during
urination;
strong smell;
fever or blood
in urine
Antibiotics
Vaginitis
Vaginal
infection by
fungus,
bacteria, or
protozoa; may
be from STI
Irritation or
itchin around
vagina;
secretions of
unusual color
&/or
unpleasant odor
Over-the –
counter vaginal
cream or
antibiotic
Problem What it is?
Symptoms
Treatment
Amenorrhea Late puberty due to
anorexia, endocrine
(Delayed
problems, excessive
puberty)
wt. loss, &/or
Over exercise
No breast
development,
&/or no
Menstrual
periods
Determined
by doctor
Menstrual
Cramps
Prostaglandins
(hormone like
substance) produced
during menstruation
causes cramps
Contractions of
uterine muscle,
abdominal pain,
some
nausea/vomit
Over-thecounter meds,
warm baths,
doctor
Premenstrual
Syndrome
Mental & physical
changes related to
MC; not completely
understood
Irritability,
mood swings,
depression,
abdominal
bloating, breast
tenderness
doctor
PMS
Problem
What it is?
Symptoms
Treatment
Ovarian Cyst
Failure of
follicle to
rupture &
release an ova;
may also be
growths from
cancer
Pain in lower
abdomen or
pelvis for a
month or so
Mx by doctor;
cysts often go
away on own
but may need
surgery
Cervical Cancer
Abnormal division
of cells in cervix;
can be from STI
Vaginal bleeding,
discharge, pelvic
pain, may be no
symptoms
Surgery, radiation,
chemo
Problem
What it is?
Symptoms
Treatment
Toxic Shock
Syndrome
(TSS)
Poisoning of the
body from
bacterial toxins;
usually related
to tampon use
Fever, chills,
weakness, rash
on palms of
hands
Antibiotics &
immediate Mx
treatment
Endometriosis
Growth of
tissue from
uterine lining
outside the
uterus
Severe
cramping and
pain in lower
abdomin or
pelvis region
MX – hormone
therapy or
surgery
HEALTHY FRS
•Women should practice good-hygiene, self-
exams, regular MX visits
•Balanced diet & exercise
•Prevent STI’s –
•Prevent vaginal irritation=reddenss, itching, mild
pain around vaginal opening; prevent by reg.
bathing, loose cotton underclothes, not wearing
wet clothes for long periods of time, etc
•Relieving menstrual cramps
•Preventing infertility
---Annual pelvic exam
• 7 Ways to Stay Healthy
1. Exercise regularly & maintain balanced diet
2. Gently wash genital area w/ warm water &
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
soap daily- do not use hygiene sprays/powders
Wipe front to back after urination
Change sanitary napkins every 4-6 hours
Avoid wearing tight clothing that can cause
discomfort
Have annual pelvic exam
Do monthly SBE
Breast Cancer
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•
•
•
Mainly older women but can occur at any age
At risk if it runs in the family but not the only factor
Can be treated effectively if detected early
WAYS TO CHECK
– Mammogram
– Self-breast exam
- Perform BSE during/after warm bath/shower; & at least 1 week after
period
- Stand in front of mirror, place 1 hand over head & use other to
examine each breast separately
- Use your thumb/index finger to gently squeeze each nipple looking for
unusual discharge
- Check each nipple for swelling, dimpling, scaliness
- Use 3 fingers to feel each breast for unusual lumps or thickening under
skin. Check under armpits & breast as well
EATING DISORDERS
• American Psychological Association uses following diagnostic criteria
to identify:
Anorexia
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15% or more below desirable weight
Fear of weight gain
Altered body image
3 or more missed menstrual periods; in young adolescents, no onset on
menstruation
Bulimia
– Binge eating 2 or more times a week for 3 months
– A lack of control over eating
– Purging
– Concern about body image
Characteristic Symptoms
• Anorexia
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Looks thin & keeps getting thinner
Skips meals, cuts food into small pieces, moves food around plate
Loss of menstrual period
Wears layered clothing – loss of hair from head
Growth of fine hair on face, arm
Sensitive to cold
Bulimia
– Bathroom use immediately after eating
– Inconspicuous eating
– Excessive time/money spent food shopping
– Menstrual irregularities
– Excessive constipation
– Swollen/infected glands, sore throat , bursting blood vessels in eyes, damaged
teeth & gums
– Dehydration
EATING DISORDER TREATMENTS
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Anorexia
Can be complex & demanding
May include hospitalization to stabilize physical issues
Intravenous feedings
Drug treatments to treat depression, OCD, anxiety
Counseling – individual & family
• Bulimia includes family & nutritional counseling – hospitalization is
not usually required
• Where to get help
– Guidance
– Bergen County Dept. of Health
– Health Professionals
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