I II Major Specialists and Areas of Study A Psychology: The scientific study of mental processes and behavior. Where it all began A In the early 1800's, Charles Darwin traveled the world on the H.M.S. Beagle. 1 Darwin eventually made his way to the Galapagos Islands of the coast of South America. He noticed animals that were present in other locations that had developed differently. 2 Darwin noted physical as well as behavioral differences. 3 Darwin's observation led scientists to curiosity about human behavior. B Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) 1 The Father of Psychology 2 Background Information Began his professional life as a German Physician. Also a Philosopher, a Professor, and a Physiologist. 3 1879: Wundt founded one of the first facilities dedicated to the research and study of Psychological Research at the University of Liepzeig in Germany. The laboratory enabled him to study and identify disorders and behavioral issues which allowed him to establish Psychology as a separate, stand-alone science. 4 Wundt authored the text, "Principles of Physiological Psychology" in 1874. 5 Wundt studied the human experience in terms of sensation and feelings, or it's structure. To do this, he asked his subjects to describe experiences through a process of introspection. This was the origin of the Psychological School of thought that has come to be known as "Structuralism". C Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) 1 "Theories of Personality" 2 General Information Freud was an Austrian Physician who founded the "Psychoanalytic School of Psychology". Freud developed one of the first comprehensive, or all-inclusive theories of personality. Freud was primarily interested in how personality develops, what goes wrong, and how to correct the problem. 3 Freud postulated that issues in a persons' unconscious conflict led to the development of personality issues later in life. Freud believed that events and occurrences in the first 5 or 6 years of life impacted the problems that manifest in adolescence and adulthood. 4 Freud's point of view was very popular in the 1950's and then reemerged in the 1960's through the 1980's. 5 Freud is well known for his belief in dream interpretation as a tool for insight into everyday issues. 6 Freud openly postulated that the primary motivational factor in a human beings' life was sexual desire. D William James (1842-1910) 1 "Psychology is the science of mental life" 2 General Information III William James was a philosopher and a Harvard Professor. Widely considered to be one of the founders of American psychology. James published one of the first widely used tomes (textbooks) on Psychology in 1890. The book was more than 1400 pages long and took over a decade to compose. 3 James was interested in how humans were impacted by their environment. 4 Fundamental belief was that no single law or psychological principle could encompass all of human kind. He believed that Psychology must not ever forget the individual being. E John Broadus Watson (1878-1958) 1 Father of Behaviorism 2 General Information: Studied the impact of learning on emotion. Typically associated with Behaviorism. 3 What we feel and do depends largely on connections we have made. 4 We are what we learn to be. 5 Believed that proper parenting could prevent the development of psychological issues. 6 Wrote a book to teach people how to properly parent because he believed that the methods of parenting being used were inadequate. 7 Pioneer of Learning Theory, which is still in use today in several forms within the mental health profession. How Do we Study Psychology Today? A Biopsychological Approach 1 Examining behavior from the physical changes and events occurring within the body. B Behavioral Approach 1 We are the products of learning and associations. Essentially, we draw from experience. 2 We experience an event, we classify our experience in our memory, and we use this to make decisions in the future. C Psychoanalytic Approach 1 Sigmund Freud. Belief that within each one of us is a teeming cesspool of desire, and repressed sexuality ready to explode. 2 These desires govern our behavior from beneath the surface of our consciousness. D Humanistic Approach 1 Human beings are inherently good, and if things were to go properly, human beings could eventually reach a state of perfection. 2 Environment does not factor into the development or the choices made by human beings. E Cognitive Approach 1 The most important human ability is that we can assimilate information from our environment, process it, and develop a solution to a problem. 2 We are fundamentally thinking creatures. F Sociocultural Approach 1 Incorporates the impact that social, racial, ethnic, and religious affiliation can have on the manner in which an individual conducts him or her self.