Chapters 7 & 11
Memory & Development
Memory - Terms
 Encoding - forming memory code
 How something sounds, looks, what it means
 Storage - maintaining encoded info in memory over
 Retrieval - Recovering info from memory stores
 Tip-of-The-Tongue Phenomenon - ability to remember
something you know, accompanied by a feeling that it’s
just out of reach
Memory Terms
 Recall – Remember without cue
 Example: Fill in the blank, essay
 Recognition – Select from a list
 Example: MC questions, matching
 Serial-Position Effect - remember the first few and last
few words in a list
 Recency effect – remember last things
 Primacy effect – remember first thing
Memory Terms
 Clustering - Remember similar or related items in
 Sensory Memory - Preserves info in its original
sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of
a second
 Example: Afterimage (sparklers)
 Iconic
 Echoic
Memory Terms
 Short Term Memory (Working Memory)
 limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed
info up to 20 seconds
 Maintenance Rehearsal – Keeps in STM for longer
period of time
Memory Terms
 Elaborate Rehearsal
 Organizing and associating material with information
you already have
Memory Terms
 Long Term Memory
 Unlimited capacity store that can hold info for lengthy
 Nondeclarative or procedural memory system –
memory for actions, operations, conditioned
 Example – riding a bike, typing, tying a shoe
Memory Terms
 Episodic Memory System – Chronological, temporally
dated, personal experiences (autobiographical)
 Example – when did you see them, hear them –
 Semantic Memory System – general knowledge not
tied to time it was learned (encyclopedia)
 Example – Christmas is on December 25th
Memory Terms
 Flashbulb memories (270) - unusually vivid/detailed
recollection of event
 Usually not as accurate as once believed
 Example: 9/11
Atkinson-Shiffrin 3 Stage Model of
Functional Fixedness
 Obstacle to problem solving only see things for what
they are.
 MacGyver – does not suffer from this
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ksgaup4zqz0
Life-Span Approach
 Life-Span Psychologists & Child Psychologist
 Although both study development, the child
psychologist has decided to focus on a particular earlier
portion of the typical life span.
 The view that development occurs across an entire
lifetime was Erik Erikson
Research Methods
 Normative Development
 Typical sequence of developmental changes for a group of
 Example: Stage theory, individual development, or individual
pattern of development, including differences among
individuals during development
 Cross-Sectional Method
 investigators compare groups of participants of differing age
at a single point in time
 Completed quicker and cheap
Research Methods
 Longitudinal Method
 observe one group of participants repeatedly over
a period of time
 Longer more money
Developmental Issues
 Nature-Nurture debate
 Maturationists
 Emphasize role of genetically programmed growth &
development on the body and nervous system
 Maturation – biological readiness
 Greater preprogrammed physiological development of
the brain allows for more complex conceptualization
and reasoning
Developmental Issues
 Environmentalists
 John Lock’s – “Tabula rasa” or “Blank Slate”
 All development due to learning
 Continuous or Discontinuous (gradual/stage)
 Critical period
 Time which skill must be developed
 Feral children Friday! (that’s for you Cook)
Developmental Issues
 Culture
 Collectivists – society over individual
 Individualist – personal over society
Physical Development
 Prenatal period – extends from conception to birth
usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy
 Germinal Stage
 first phase of prenatal development first two weeks
after conception
 Zygote – cell division, expanding to sixty-four cells
implants on uterine wall
Physical Development
 Embryonic Stage – second stage of prenatal stage
lasts two weeks to end of second month
 Most vital organs form
 Begin to look human
 Problems: Most miss carriages occur during this
period, most birth defects develop during this
Physical Development
 Fetal Stage – third stage of prenatal development last
from 2 months to birth
 Physical movements due to skeletal structure
 Sex organs develop around 3rd month
 Layer of fat develop
 Age of viability – age when baby can survive in the
event of premature birth
 22 – 26 weeks
Physical Development
 Teratogens
 Harmful environmental agents that may effect fetal
 Example: alcohol
 Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
 Physical abnormalities & cognitive deficiencies
Physical Development Reflex
 Neonate
 Newborn baby
 Sucking reflex
 Touch roof of baby’s mouth she will suck
 Palmer Reflex (Grasping reflex)
 Put finger in baby’s palm and baby will grab
 Babinski Reflex
 Stroke outer sole and baby spreads toes, stroke inner
sole and baby curls toes
Physical Development Reflex
 Head-turning reflex (rooting reflex)
 Elicited touching babies cheek
 Moro Reflex
 When startled, baby will throw arms and legs out and
head back and then pull them into body
 Orienting Reflex
 Child orients themselves to their surroundings
 Example: loud crash, they will try and locate
Physical Development Reflex
 Stereotyped Ingestive Responses
 Sucking, smacking of lips if a drop of sugar water is in
their mouths
Piaget Cognitive Development
 Jean Piaget
 Equilibration – child’s attempt to reach a balance
between what the child encounters in the environment
and what cognitive structures the child brings to the
Piaget Cognitive Development
 Assimilation - interpreting new experiences in terms
of existing mental structures without them changing
 Example: Four-legged pet = puppies same as they
see cat = puppies
 Schema
 Mental representational model
 Accommodation – changing existing mental
structures to explain new experiences
 Example: Puppies and cats are different
Piaget’s 4 Stages
 Stage 1: Sensorimotor Period
 Coordination of sensory input and motor responses;
development of object permanence
 Object permanence develops when a child recognizes
that objects continue to exist even when they are no
longer visible . . . Peek-a-Boo
 Example: hiding things under a pillow still exist
 Age: Birth – 2 years
Piaget’s Stages
 Stage 2: Preoperational Period
 Improvement in mental images
 Conservation – awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite
of changes in their shape or appearance
 Example: Beaker of water experiment
 Centration – focus on just one feature of a problem, neglecting other
important aspects
 Irreversibility – inability to envision reversing an action
 Example: preoperational children can’t mentally “undo” something
 Egocentrism – limited ability to share another persons viewpoint
 Example: preoperational children fail to appreciate that there are points of view
other than their own
 Animism – belief that all things are living
 Example: children attribute lifelike human qualities to inanimate objects
 Age: 2 – 7 years
Piaget’s Stages
 Stage 3: Concrete Operational Period
 Children can perform operation on images of tangible
objects and actual events. There are several ways to
look at a problem, now that they can undo something
(conservation skills). Decline in egocentrism
 Age: 7 to 11 years
Piaget’s Stages
 Stage 4: Formal Operational Period
 Mental operations applied to abstract ideas; logical,
systematic thinking
 Metacognition – ability to recognize one’s cognitive
processes and change/adapt those processes if not
 Idea of love, free will, justice
 Example: Think problems through before answering unlike
a child that attacks on a problem quickly
 Age: 11 – adulthood
Lev Vygotsky
 Believed that Piaget ignored the role of culture on cognitive
 Cognitive development = active internalization of
problem-solving processes as a result of interaction
with others
 Ie, learning is ACTIVE, SOCIAL, and CREATIVE (ASC, sound
 Children learn how to think through their interactions
with others
 Where Piaget saw the child as a scientist, Vygotsky
saw the child as an apprentice
Fluid/Crystallized Intelligence
 Fluid
 Think in terms of abstract concepts/symbolic
 Decrease with adulthood
 Crystallized
 Specific knowledge of facts, and information
Erik Erikson
 tug of war that determined the subsequent balance
between opposing polarities in personality:
Erik Erikson
 Trust v. Mistrust –
 What happens: infant depends on adults for care and needs
 Age: birth to 1
 Outcomes:
 Taken care of - optimism, trust
 Not taken care of –distrust, pessimism
 Autonomy v. Shame & Doubt –
 What happens: Toilet training and regulating behavior, child must take some
 Age: 2 – 3
 Outcomes:
 Goes well – child becomes self-sufficient
 Conflict – personal shame or self-doubt
Erik Erikson
 Initiative v. Guilt –
 What happens: Children experiment take initiatives may create conflict in house
 Age: 3 -6
 Outcomes:
 Goes well – Child will respect others and parents wishes
 Conflict – Over controlling parents instill guilt and self-esteem issues
 Industry v. Inferiority –
 What happens: Functioning in society (outside of the house)
 Age: 6 – puberty
 Outcomes:
 Should lean to value achievement and take pride in accomplishments
Erik Erikson
 Intimacy v. Isolation
 What happens: Share intimacy
 Age: Early adulthood
 Outcomes:
 Good – empathy and openness
 Bad – shrewdness and manipulative
 Generativity v. Stagnation (Self-Absorption)
 What happens: Concern for future generations, providing unselfish guidance to
 Integrity v. Despair
 What happens: avoid dwelling on mistakes and death and find meaning in life
Harry Harlow
 Monkeys need comfort/security as much as food
 Monkey loves soft mother rather than wire monkey
 Attachment – tendency to prefer specific familiar
individuals over others
Mary Ainsworth
 Strange situation – parent leaves child with stranger
and returns
 Secure – child uses parent as support (most common)
 Insecure – Child does not know if parent will be
supportive thus acts erratically (affects 7 – 15% of pop.)
 Avoidant – does not use parent for support, rear, usually
abusive parents
3 Types of Parenting Style
 Authoritarian
 Follow rules or else
 Corporal punishment (spanking) for disobedience
 Authoritative
 Compliance to rules, however democratic
 Parent sets limits, punishments, forgives
 Permissive
 Few expectations, warm and non-demanding
 Not punished often
Kohlberg’s Stage Theory
 Level 1: Preconventional Morality
 Stage 1 – Obedience & Punishment
 Rules are fixed absolute
 Obey rules = avoid punishment
 Stage 2 – Individualism & Exchange
 Serve ones own interests
 Heinz dilemma – best serve own need
Kohlberg’s Stage Theory
 Level 2: Conventional Morality
 Stage 3 – Interpersonal Relationships
 Good boy – good girl living up to social expectations and
 Conformity
 Choices influence relationships
 Stage 4 – Maintaining Social Order
 Consider society as a whole when making judgments
 Follow rules and respecting authority
Kohlberg’s Stage Theory
 Level 3: Postconventional Morality
 Stage 5 – Social Contract & Individual Rights
 Account for others opinions & values
 Rules of laws are important for society, but they must
be agreed upon
 Stage 6 – Universal Principles
 Ethics and abstract reasoning
 People follow their personal principles of justice even if
they conflict with laws/rules
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross
 Stages of Death
 Denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance
 Oral Stage
 Anal Stage
 Phallic Stage
 Oedipal
 Electra
 Latency Stage
 Genital Stage