The Duel for North America

The Duel for North
Chapter 6
The French in North
• New France
• British
bringing settlers in from the mother
• French
making Native Americans French
Treat Indians as equals and
exploiting new lands economically
develop stronger alliances with Indians
The French and Indian War
(or the Seven Years War)
• Disputed land claims in
Western Pennsylvania
• Duquesne (modern day
• Both France and
England laid claim to
the area
• George Washington
Fort Necessity and
Jumonville Glen
• George Washington
• 22 year old militia officer
• Sent by British to deliver ultimatum
to French
• Constructed an outpost
approximately 60 miles from
Duquesne called “Fort Necessity”
• First skirmish between the French and
Washington’s men took place not far
from the fort
• Washington and Indian allies attacked a
French position at a location known as
Jumonville Glen.
Within a few minutes, 10 Frenchmen were
killed and 21 wounded.
• French retaliated
• Controversy
British Attack Fort
In 1755, British General Edward
Braddock was ordered to attack
French stronghold at Fort
• George Washington assigned as aid
Braddock and his 1500 confident
they could take fort
• Ambushed
• Braddock and staff were killed
(except Washington)
• British defeat at Fort Duquesne
was first of many losses during
Prime Minister
William Pitt
• French initially victorious
over British military
• Changed when King George
III picked new leaders to run
the British government
• William Pitt, as prime
minister, put together a
massive army of 50,000 men
to fight French
• Had to borrow a large
amount of money to do so
The Battle of Quebec
Fought outside the city of
Quebec on the “Plains of
Wolfe had 4800 men under his
command, Montcalm, 4000
Wolfe’s men scaled cliffs
protecting the city and surprised
• Montcalm
could have evacuated
the city, but chose to fight
Wolfe’s men
British losses in the battle were
58 killed, 600 wounded
French losses were 644 men
killed or wounded
Both Wolfe and Montcalm were
killed in battle
Battle ended in a decisive British
Treaty of Paris 1763
• Ended the French and Indian War
• France ceded Canada and all land claims east of Mississippi River to England
• France kept island colony of Guadeloupe
• Spain received Louisiana and New Orleans from French, Cuba restored to
Spain temporarily ceded Florida to British
Impact of the War
• France lost most of its overseas empire
• Size of British holdings in North America doubled
• Found it difficult to manage
• British treasury deep in debt
• Eventually tried to pay by taxing the Thirteen
• “Balance of Power”
• Led French later to support the colonists in the American
• Britain became dominant world power at that time
Pontiac’s Rebellion
• Indian tribes concerned with
number of British soldiers
entering the Ohio River valley
• United behind Ottawa Chief
Pontiac in attempt to reclaim
lands for Native Americans
• Indians were successful in
capturing eight British forts, but
were weakened when British
officers gave them smallpoxinfected blankets during peace
• Eventually entered into treaties
with the British, and gave up
control of the lands they had taken
Proclamation of 1763
• Issued by King George III
• Restricted settlement to the
east of a line drawn at the
Appalachian Mountains
• Attempt to control the vast
• Sought to stop exploitative
sale of Indian land
• Purpose: to forestall further
frontier warfare after
Pontiac’s Rebellion
Seeds of Revolution
• By 1763, the British Empire = world’s “superpower”
• In position of dominance after defeating French
• But there was a price…
• Pitt’s policies during French and Indian War put British economy
on shaky ground
• To pay for war, British Crown found itself looking for ways to levy
taxes on citizens, both at home and in its North American colonies
• Colonists felt they were entitled to same rights as fellow citizens in
the mother country, and began to feel that they were being taken
advantage of by Parliament since they did not have any
• Feelings of mistreatment would soon give way to feelings of
resentment of the crown (aka Revolution)