Ancient Egypt
• Became an important civilization because of the Nile River
• Egypt Natural barriers protect them from invasions.
• Example
• Dessert = west and east
• Red sea = east
• Cataracts = south
• Mediterranean sea = north
Beginnings and settlement
• From around 5000 to 4000 BC, settlers of the Nile valley formed small
communities devoted to farming, pottery and working with copper, and raising
• By 3000 BC, nomes or cities where artisans and traders lived had formed.
Nomes built their own religious temples to worship their gods
• Rules by dynasties led by Pharaohs.
• Pharaoh the supreme ruler chosen by the gods to lead his people.
believed pharaoh = god. (Theocracy)
• Dynasty – is a succession, or series, or ruler belonging to the same family.
• Believe in the afterlife.
The Old Kingdom: 2800 to 2250 BC
• Known for its territorial expansion which means that Egypt took control of new
• Pharaohs order the building of pyramids
• Pharaoh Khufu – known for being a tyrant(imposed his will) and the building of the Great
Pyramid of Giza
• Pharaoh Khafre – order the construction of the Great Sphinx at Giza
The Middle Kingdom 2050-1750 BC
• Achievements:
• Knew how to add and subtract
• Observed the heavens and created calendars for farming and rituals.
•The New Kingdom 1550 BC – 1077 BC
• Egypt expanded its empire and acquired many riches, which made the
kingdom prosperous again.
• The number of slaves increase.
Egyptian writing
• Consisted of symbols that showed, different things that Egyptians
found around them.
• Only members of the Egyptian nobility could become scribes, or
people who wrote and copied texts.
• The most famous Egyptian writing was the Hieroglyphics
• Used in temples, tombs and other religious buildings.
Write a short message in Hieroglyphics
• Became pharaoh when he was nine years old. During the year 1350 B.C.
• King Tut died when he was only nineteen years old. No one really knows if he died from
an accident, illness, or his enemies.
• His burial chamber was found by Britain's
Howard Carter in 1922.
It is the single most important tomb discovery because it was found intact.