AP World History Chapter 28 The New Power Balance 1850-1900 The New Power Balance Producing lots of steel at low cost. New chemicals & synthetic dyes. Alfred Nobel – dynamite for engineering & explosives The New Power Balance Industrial chemistry science and technology interacted daily. German chemical & explosives industries most advanced by 1900. The New Power Balance 1870s - efficient generators for industry. Alleviated pollution. Huge demand for copper. The New Power Balance Advances in shipbuilding Developed shipping lines Submarine telegraph lines The New Power Balance Railroads expanded between 1850-1900 for industry, business and government. Used wood but opened new areas for agriculture, mining, etc. The New Power Balance Between 1850-1913 world trade expanded tenfold as freight expense dropped. Interdependence made them vulnerable to swings in business cycles. The New Power Balance Between 1850-1914 – rapid population growth. European ancestry now at 1/3 of world population. Why? The New Power Balance Drop in death rate Improved crop yields Farming newly opened lands in North America Canning & refrigeration The New Power Balance After 1850, cities grew @ tremendous rate . Technology changed quality of life. Cities were divided into zones. Air quality worsened. The New Power Balance Labor unions developed from the workers’ “friendly societies” & sought better wages, improved working conditions & insurance for workers. The New Power Balance Socialism – questioned the sanctity of private ownership. Karl Marx – International Working Man’s Association The New Power Balance Victorian Age (r. 1837-1901) Separate spheres Education Legal discrimination The New Power Balance Language crucial for national unity. Until 1860 – Nationalism = liberalism. National identity built on education, colonial conquests, & military. The New Power Balance Prussia took the lead due to its industrial base & military. Otto von Bismarck – Franco Prussian War victory led to German unity. The New Power Balance Used press and education to build nationalism. “Natural selection” and “survival of the fittest” justified conquests of foreign & domesticate society. The New Power Balance International relations revolved around a united Germany – loose alliances with Austria-Hungary and Russia. Bismarck fired. Wilhelm II - wanted colonies. The New Power Balance France – to Germany nationalism was hidden. Britain – ignored Germany, busy with the Irish, Crimean War, Indian rebellion & Opium War in China nd 2 The New Power Balance Nationalism weakened A-H & Russia. Ethnic diversity added to instability of Russia 1861 –Tsar Alexander II freed peasants from serfdom The New Power Balance State industrialization Middle class remained weak Temporary constitution and the Duma ineffective as Nicholas II reverts to despotism of the past. The New Power Balance U.S. emerges as world’s leading industrial power. Growth came at expense of Amerindian, AfricanAmericans, working women, & the environment. The New Power Balance China denied western technologies –slowed intrusion. Japan adopted western technologies and progressed. The New Power Balance Japanese gov’t encouraged industrialization. Developed a constitutional monarchy & expanded sphere’s of influence to include Korea, Manchuria, & parts of China. The New Power Balance Japan defeated China in 1894 Japan defeated Russia in 1905 Japan annexed Korea in 1910. Conclusion 1850 -1914 “Golden Age” for Europe & North America. Made improvements in health, sanitation, advances in technology, & reforms that made life better for all. Conclusion The framework for all these changes was the nationstate. Only a few countries exercised economic, political, & cultural dominance in the world. Conclusion The success of the great powers rested on their ability to extract resources from nature & from other societies including Asia, Africa and Latin America.