Unit 5: A New Global Age

Unit 5: A New Global Age
Nationalism in Europe
• Essential Questions:
– How did nationalism develop a sense of unity
between countrymen, as well as competition
between nations?
– How did nationalism lead countries towards
• A feeling of sense or pride for your country
• When good, will unite a country and increase
• When bad, allows hatred of and competition
with other nations which lead to war
(1) Otto and the Germans
• 1862: Otto von
Bismarck (Chancellor of
Prussia) starts to unify
– Germany was
conglomerate of 39
• Similar culture,
language and traditions
• Definition: Realistic politics based on the
needs of the people.
– Follows:
• Machiavelli’s ideas
• Realism
• Power, not morals
– Is goal oriented, so it does not use a set of rules;
the ultimate goal is most power!
Bismarck Quotes:
“The less people know about how sausages and
laws are made, the better they’ll sleep at night.”
“A generation that has taken a beating is always
followed by a generation that deals one.”
“Never believe in anything until it has been
officially denied.”
“The great questions of the day will not be settled
by speeches and majority decisions—that was the
mistake of 1848-1849—but by blood and iron.”
“Blood and Iron”
• Write down what you
think “Blood and Iron”
Process of Annexation
Franco-Prussian War of 1870
• Otto von Bismarck leads Prussia/Germany
against France
• Napoleon III is unsuspecting
– `Insulted at dinner by Bismarck, he then declares
war on Germany
• Germany is already mobilized
– Conquer France in three weeks
Germany’s march to Paris
Second Reich: 1871
• Chancellor: Bismarck
• Kaiser: Wilhelm I
• Under both, the country industrializes
– “Steel production multiplied by 12 in 30 years”
– “Coal production multiplied by nearly five in 30
– “Manufactures multiplied by four”
– “Exports multiplied by three”
Lasting, progressive programs
• Health Insurance Bill of 1883
– gave healthcare on local level to the middle class
• Accident Insurance Bill of 1884
• Old Age and Disability Bill of 1889
– Gave a pension to retired or disabled peoples
(2) Unifying Italy
• Giuseppe Mazzini tries
to unify Italy in the
• Spurs national unity
• Very close to a
complete Italy, but are
defeated by Austria in
• Count Cavour of
• Convinced the French
to help dispose of the
– Beat the Austrians back
• United all of Northern
• Giuseppe Garibaldi
• Led 1,000 red shirts to
gain control of the
Kingdom of two Sicily's
• Gained an united
Southern Italy in 1860
• King Victor Immanuel II
– First King of Italy in 1861
– Made peace with Austria
– United all sections of
Italy together
– Made the Capital Rome
(3) Russia and Nationalism
• Russia had land and resources
– Lacked ability to access their resources
• Tsar Alexander II
– Emancipation of serfs in 1861
– Creation of local governments led by zemstvos
• Local officials were then represented in the Duma
“Forced Nationalism”
• Tsar demanded Russification
• Everyone had to speak Russian, wear Russian clothes, follow
Russian customs.
• Russian Orthodox Church was only religion tolerated
– Supported the Tsar
• Russian officials also governed non-Russian zemstvos
– Less than half of Russia consists of Russians
» Others: Cossacks, Georgians, Mongols, Jews, Poles, Fins, etc.
Russia Expands
• Industrialization from
– Allows Russia to gain
several territories
• Finland
• Poland
• Manchuria
– Russia can build a TransSiberian RR
Trans-Siberian Railroad
Started by Alexander II
Completed in 1905
Stretches 5,772 miles
Connects East and West
– Physically unites as a
Expansion of the US
• Manifest Destiny
– Desire of America to
expand from “sea to sea”
• US expands through
buying territory and war
1803: Louisiana Purchase
1845: Texas Annexation
1846: Oregon Country
1848: Mexican Cession
1867: Alaskan Purchase
American Civil War
• Abolition movement
– Frederick Douglas
– Dred Scott Affair
• Kansas-Nebraska Act
• Secession
– 11 states “leave” the
• Civil War: 1861-1865
– 13th Amendment
– 14th Amendment