Cells Vocabulary 1. 2. Organelle: structures in the cytoplasm of a cell that carry out cell activities. Organ: in an organism, structure made of two or more different tissues which has a specialized function; for example, the lungs, heart, kidneys, skin. 3. Tissue: in plants and animals, a group of cells that work together to do a specific job 4. Cell: basic unit of structure and function in living things 5. Organ System: group of organs that work together to do a specific job for an organism, such as the digestive system, muscular system, circulatory system 6. Organism: a living thing 7. Nucleus: structure near the center of a cell that contains the cell’s DNA 8. Mitochondria: structures in the cell that transform the energy in food into a form the cells can use to carry out their activities 9. Vacuole: in a cell, fluid filled structure that holds waste products or substances needed by the cell 10. Cell wall: stiff outer barrier of a plant cell, outside the cell membrane, which is made mostly of cellulose 11. Cell membrane: structure that surrounds the cytoplasm of the cell 12. Cytoplasm: gel-like fluid that takes up most of the space inside a cell made mostly of water 13. Chloroplast: a structure in a plant cell that contains chlorophyll; sugar molecules are made in chloroplasts through photosynthesis 14. Structure: system of parts: a system or organization made up of interrelated parts functioning as a whole 15. Function: an activity or role assigned to somebody or something 16. Endoplasmic Reticulum: Organelles that produce products for the cell including proteins and lipids. Also serves as a delivery system for the cell. 17. Nuclear membrane: Protects and surrounds the nucleus 18. Nucleolus: Found inside the nucleus, responsible for making ribosomes 19. Cell Theory: States that cells are the basic unit of structure and function and that cells can only come from existing cells 20. Chromosome: A structure located in the nucleus and made of DNA, contain the genetic information needed to make new cells, and carry out cell functions. 21. Ribosome: Site where proteins are created in the cell. 22. Golgi apparatus (body): An organelle consisting of folded membranes that works to change and transport proteins out of eukaryotic cells. 23. Lysosome: The organelle that holds waste materials from the cell and breaks down food, worn out pieces of cell, and other waste.