C-1 Vocab w/definitions

Chapter 1 – Cells - Vocabulary List
organism – an individual living thing, made up of one or many cells, that is capable of
growing and reproducing
unicellular – a term used to describe an organism that is made up of a single cell
multicellular - a term used to describe an organism that is made up of many cells
microscope – an instrument that uses glass lenses to magnify an object
bacteria – a large group of one-celled organisms
cell membrane – the outer boundary of the cytoplasm, a layer that controls what
enters or leaves the cell
cytoplasm – a thick, gelatin-like material contained within the cell membrane
nucleus – the structure in a eukaryotic cell that contains the genetic material
eukaryotic cell – a cell in which the genetic material is enclosed with a nucleus,
surrounded by its own membrane
prokaryotic cell – a cell that lacks a nucleus and other organelles, with DNA that is
not organized into chromosomes
organelle – a cell structure, enclosed by a membrane, that performs a function
cell wall – a protective outer covering that lies just outside the cell membrane of plant
chloroplast – an organelle in a plant cell that contains chlorophyll, a chemical that uses
the energy from sunlight to make sugar
mitochondria – organelles that release energy by using oxygen to break down sugars
specialization – the organization of a cell that allows it to perform a function
tissue – a group of similar cells that are organized to do a specific job
organ – a structure in a plant or animal that is made up of different tissues working
together to perform a particular function