Topic 5 Motor Programs and Feedback Notes

IB SEHS SL Class Notes
Motor Programs and Feedback
Topic 5.2
Motor Programs (Programmes)
● A series of movements stored in long term memory (LTM)
● Retrieved from memory as a whole
● Put into action by the effector mechanism
● Operated under open or closed loop control
Open and Closed Loops
● The motor program is stored as an exact model of the movement to be
produced in the future
● Open Loop – movements that are produced without reference to any
feedback because they happen too fast (e.g. fast typing)
● Closed Loop – movements that are guided by feedback, as they are slow
enough to change (e.g. there is a constant error detection mechanism
● Adams’ Closed Loop Theory – Suggests that as a particular movement is
reinforced during learning, it is stored in the long-term memory as a
memory trace. It is strong if:
● The movement has been extensively rehearsed
● The information has been stored in ‘chunks’ so that relationships between
individual subroutines are well established
● The movement or stimulus has strong emotional intensity (important to
the learner)
● The kinesthetic image of the movement is reinforced by visual imagery
(mind pictures).
Memory Trace – include both subroutines and executive
programs of the movement; the performer has a memory trace of
the whole movement and the various elements of it (e.g. a gymnast
learning the cartwheel has memory of the leg extension, the hand
positions, the landing, the timing, etc.)
Perceptual Trace – is recorded from STM and compared with the
memory trace. If the match is good, the movement continues, if
not, the learner tries to correct the error (e.g. by adjusting the foot
position as it lands to achieve a better balance)
Schema Theory –
● The motor program is stored as a generalized model or set of rules about
how a skill is to be produced given the conditions at the time. Remember
variability when teaching a skill.
● Recall – responsible for the production of movement that are stored in
Initial conditions under which the movement is to be
produced (e.g. where am I in relation to the ball?)
The required response specifications; the movement
requirements (e.g. what have I got to do and how do I do it?)
● Recognition – responsible for evaluating the movement response.
Initially stored in short-term memory (STM) for comparison with recall
schema, but after completion, is stored in LTM.
IB SEHS SL Class Notes
Motor Programs and Feedback
Topic 5.2
Sensory consequences (the kinesthetic feel of the movement)
Response outcomes (e.g. what happened as a result of the
People learn from errors
Types of feedback
● Intrinsic feedback – self regulated – outside help is not needed
● Extrinsic feedback – provided by others (e.g. coach, teacher, teammates),
or devices (e.g. stopwatches, HR monitor)
● Two major forms of feedback:
o Knowledge of results (KR) – post-response info based on the
outcome of the action. (e.g. long jumper’s length, runner’s time)
o Knowledge of performance (KP) post-response info based on the
nature of the movement.
● Positive – informing the player/student what they’ve done well
● Negative – informing the player/student what they’ve done wrong (demotivating; damaging, especially to beginners)
● Prescriptive – explaining/demonstrating what should be done or how to
do the skill
● Concurrent – feedback received during the skill/tasks/game (coaches
yelling during play)
● Terminal – feedback received at the completion of skill/tasks/game
(post-game critique)
The Role of Feedback in the Learning Process
● Reinforcement of Learning – the giving of a reward such that the
rewarded behavior will be repeated;(e.g. praise for a well-timed pass in
● Motivation – the internal state of a performer, which drives them to
behave or perform in a particular way.
● Adaptation of Performance – intrinsic feedback (e.g. a javelin thrower
might know that the throw ‘felt good’, but waits in anticipation of the
javelin to land to see if the throw is as long as he feels it is. (Knowledge of
Performance/Knowledge of Results)
● Punishment – an unpleasant response designed to prevent the
occurrence of unwanted behavior.