The Gunpowder Empires



The Gunpowder Empires

The Ottoman Empire Safavid Empire


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100 200 300 400 500

The Mughal Empire Important People

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Important Events

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What was the Battle of Lepanto ?

happened in 1571 that marked a temporary defeat of the Muslim fleet but the ships were soon replaced and the Ottomans continued to prey on European shipping.

Who was Mehmed II?

He was nicknamed “the Conqueror”an Ottoman sultan who captured Constantinople, 1453, and destroyed the Byzantine Empire.

What was the Battle of Chaldiran?

Ottomans that occurred in 1514 with an Ottoman victory that demonstrated the importance of firearms and checked the western advance of the Safavid

Shi’a state.

What was the Suleymaniye mosque ? This was the great mosque built in Constantinople during the reign of the 16th-century Ottoman ruler Suleyman the Magnificent.

What were the Janissaries?

These were conscripted youth from conquered regions who were trained as Ottoman infantry divisions and became an important political influence after the 15th century.

Who was Abbas I, the Great?

He was the Safavid shah (1587– 1629) who extended the empire to its greatest extent and used Western military technology.

Who were the Imams ?

These were the Shi’a religious leaders who traced their descent to Ali’s successors.

Who was Ismâ’il?

He was the Safavid leader who conquered the city of Tabriz in 1501 and was proclaimed shah.

Who was Nadir Khan Afshar?

He emerged following fall of Safavids and proclaimed himself Shah in 1736.

“Don’t Choke!”



Who were the redheads? ( Islamic gingers?) This was the name given to the Safavid followers of Sail al-Din due to their distinctive headgear.

What was the Taj Mahal?

This was the mausoleum built for his wife, by her husband Shah Jahan, and the most famous architectural achievement of Mughal India.

Who was Babur the Tiger ? (Not Babar the Elephant ) He was the Turkic leader who

founded the Mughal dynasty.

Who was Akbar ? He was the son and successor to Humayn and built up the military and administrative structure of the Mughal dynasty. He followed policies of cooperation and toleration with the Hindu majority.

Who was Aurangzeb?

He was the successor to Shah Jahan and due to warfare depleted the empire’s resources. He reversed previous policies and attempted to purify Islam of Hindu influences.

Who were the Sikhs?

followed the teachings of the Guru Nanak and merged the teachings of the Hindu and Muslim faiths. They were opposed to pure Muslim and Mughul rule.

Who was Humayn?

He was the son and successor of Babur who was expelled from India in 1540 but returned to restore the dynasty in 1556.

Who were the Ottoman Turks?

They were the Turkic people who advanced into Asia Minor during the 14th century and established an Empire that lasted until World War I .

Who was Suleiman the Magnificent? He is considered to be the greatest Ottoman Sultan and extended the Empire during his long reign. ( He was a contemporary of Philip II and Elizabeth I as well)

Who were the Mullahs?

They were the religious leaders under the Safavids who worked to convert all subjects to Shi’ism.

Who was Tahmasp I ? He was the Safavid leader who became the Shah from 1534 1576 and helped restore the Empire after the defeat at Chaldiran.

“Don’t Choke!”



What was Isfahan?

This was the Safavid capital under Abbas the Great and a planned city exemplifying Safavid architecture.

Who were the Marattas?

They were the people of western India who rebelled against Mughal rule early in the 18th century.

Who was Nur Jahan?

She was the wife of ruler Jahangir who amassed power at the Mughal court and created a faction that ruled the empire during the later years of his reign.

What was Vienna ( Land of little tiny sausages in a can) ?

In 1683 the Ottomans threatened this capital of the Holy Roman Empire.

What was the Battle of Panipat?

This was the battle where Babur the Tiger using cannon and muskets defeated a superior number of Lodi warriors and war elephants led by Ibrahim Lodi.

What was the Vizier?

This was the position as head of the Ottoman bureaucracy and after the 15th century often more powerful than the sultan.

What was sati?

This was the ritual burning of high-caste Hindu women on

their husbands’ funeral pyres.

What were Madras, and Calico ( for Calcutta or Calicut as it was known to Europeans)?

These were the two famous cotton patterns based on the

textile industry of India and

named for Indian cities.

Who was Sail al-Din?

He was the founder of the Safavids, a Sufi mystic, and leader of the Red Heads.

What was Din-i-Ilahi?

This was the religion initiated by Akbar that blended elements of Islam and Hinduism, but did not survive his death.