Matter Unit Study Guide Answers

List 3 Examples of Matter:
Solids- definite shape and volume
Liquids- definite volume, no definite shape
Gases – No definite shape, no definite volume
Physical Changes vs. Chemical Changes
Physical: Matter physically changes- keeps its identity
1. freezing water. Cutting paper
2. Crushing an aluminum can, mixing oil and vinegar
Chemical: Matter chemically changes- does not keep its
1. baking soda reacting with water or vinegar
2. soured milk, rust, cooking or burning
Define each of the following
Mass: the amount of matter that something is made of
Volume: the amount of space that something contains or occupies
Weight: a measure of the gravitational force put on an object
What is the formula to calculate density?
D = m/v
What are the properties of:
Solid: particles arranged in an orderly way, vibrating back and
Liquid: particles are spread out more than a solid and slide past
each other.
Gas: particles move rapidly overcoming mostly all of their
attraction to each other.
What is Boyles Law? Give an Example
Increase pressure, decrease volume at a constant temperature
Example: Balloon being squeezed, rolling up a filled zip- lock bag
What is Charles Law? Can you give an Example?
Increase temperature, increase volume at a constant pressure
Example: Hot air balloon.
Define the following: Describe each one
Freezing- Change of state from a liquid to a solid, exothermic
Example: Water turning to ice
Melting- Change of state from a solid to a liquid, endothermic
Example: Ice melting to water.
Evaporation - vaporization that occurs at the surface of a liquid below
its boiling point.
Example: liquid turning to water vapor, endothermic change
Condensation- Change of state from a gas to a liquid. Exothermic
change. Example- Water drops forming on the outside of ice water
What is an Element? Is a pure substance that can not be separated or
broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means.
Properties of elements: melting point, boiling point, density.
2 examples of elements:
1. gold
2. silver
3 categories of elements
1. metals
2. non-metals
3. metalloids
Compound- a pure substance composed of two or more
elements that are chemically combined.
2 Examples:
1. water – H2O
2. carbon dioxide - CO2
Solubility- ability to dissolve into another substance.
Example- salt dissolving into water
Solvent – the substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a
solution. Example- Salt water, water is the solvent
Solution – a mixture that appears to be a single substance but is
composed of particles of two or more substances that are
distributed evenly amongst each other.
Gravity effects weight. The gravitational force is higher with large
They do not have the same weight but do have the same volume
because they are the same size but the bowling ball has more
Condensation because the water vapor from the air has condensed
and turned back into a liquid onto the grass.
Balloon would shrink because decrease temperature, decrease
volume which proves Charles’s Law
As water heats up, the particles gain energy and move away from
each other turning into a gas. Particles that evaporated have more
energy than particles in the pot.
Water is the universal solvent.