Absolutism Powerpoint

System of government
•King or Queen has
complete control over
government & its people
Centralized Government
Nation states
•Monarchs based their
claim on Divine Right
Authority comes from God
Similar to “Mandate of Heaven”
•Monarchs are “Above the Law”
•Common features- Strong
armies,limited representative bodies,
high taxes
Breakdown of Feudalism/ Rise
of Nation states
Continuous Warfare
Need for money
Declining influence of the church
Regulation of Religion
& society
Loss of power by
nobility & legislatures
New government
Huge building projects
The Hapsburg
1556 Holy Roman
Emperor Charles V
divides empire
Son Phillip II rules
Spain, Netherlands
& Italy
Promoted “Golden age of Spain”
•Wealth from colonies
helped buildup military
•Defender of Catholicism
1588-Spanish Armada
defeated by England
(Elizabeth I)
 1600’s Spain power declines
Financial problems
The Bourbon Monarchy
•Henry IV increases
power of Govt. &
decreases power of nobility
•Louis the XIII strengthens
& builds up military
Cardinal Richelieu
subdues nobles &
Known as “The Sun King”
Ruled for 72 years
•Mercantilist policies
•Built the strongest army in
•Expanded bureaucracy
•Never called the Estates General
•Persecuted the Huguenots
French Protestants
•Built Lavish palace @ Versailles
“Gilded Cage” for nobility
His successors inherited enormous
debts (costly Wars & extravagance)
1480 Russian rulers
drive Mongols out
•Early Czars Ivan III &
Ivan IV (Terrible) used
harsh methods to unify
Russia & strengthen
•1613 Michael Romanov
begins Romanov Dynasty
•Grand Embassy tour
Toured Europe
learning new technologies
•Introduced western ideas
•Laws, technology, culture
•Built largest army
in Europe
Won territory
along the Baltic Sea
St. Petersburg becomes
“Window to the West”
Major trading port & new
Reduced power
of the nobility
Orthodox Church
under his control
1215 King John forced to sign
Magna Carta
Limited King’s powers
1295 Edward I establishes
Model Parliament
Lawmaking body
House of Lords & House of
successfully blocked
attempted shifts to
absolute rule
The Tudor
generally worked well w/
Ex. Henry VIII &
Elizabeth I
Had absolutist
tendencies (Strong belief
in Divine Right)
James I & son Charles
I Consistently clashed
with Parliament over
finance & foreign policy
Angered Puritans
Known as the Puritan
Revolution (1643)
Charles’s Cavaliers vs.
Roundheads led by
Oliver Cromwell
Charles I is overthrown
by forces loyal to
beheaded in 1649
England became a Republic
called the Commonwealth
At first Cromwell & Parliament
share power
•1653 Cromwell assumes Title of
Lord Protector & rules as a
Cromwell brutally put down
revolts in Ireland & Scotland
•Upon Cromwell’s death, Parliament
restores Stuart Monarchy to throne
•Charles II & James II became
unpopular due to absolutist policies
•Parliament fears return of
Catholicism(James II)
•Parliament overthrows James II
& asks William & Mary to
assume throne (Glorious Revolution)
1688-William & Mary
forced to sign English Bill
of Rights is signed
Guarantees Parliament’s
superiority over the
 England becomes a
Limited Monarchy
(Remains today)