Unit 3 * A Turbulent Time

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Names and Terms to Know

 Charles I  Parliament  Oliver Cromwell  Puritans  Restoration  Glorious Revolution  Enlightenment  Age of Reason

Look at the timeline on page 422…

 Identify the key political events of the age.

 What trend in publishing characterizes the era?

Historical Background

 Charles I and Parliament – frequently clashed over money, he dissolved it and didn’t call them into session for 11 years  Had issues with religious due to trying to get them to conform  Civil War – Cromwell defeated the royalist army and took Charles as prisoner, he was beheaded  New government was known as the English Commonwealth he was named Lord Protector and was a virtual dictator

 When Cromwell died Charles II was crown  He promoted composers and painters  James II was his successor was a devout Catholic  Parliament invited his Protestant daughter Mary to rule with her husband William of Orange  James escaped to France and this was known as the Glorious Revolution because no blood was shed  Bill of Rights – limited constitutional monarchy  Conservatives, aristocratic Tories and the merchant class Whigs

 The beginning of the Industrial Revolution  Steam engine, loom – economic revolution increased Britain's wealth  The Enlightenment – through reason and observation of nature, human beings could discover the order underlying all things  Sir Isaac Newton  Mills and factories and poor working conditions were prevalent

Literature of the Period

 Jonson – strove for perfection and harmony in the classical authors  Donne – Metaphysical poetry (unusual degree of intellectualism) new, witty, cerebral style  Puritan Writers – John Milton – Calvinist educated in Greek and Latin, studied the Old Testament, epic

Paradise Lost

 John Bunyan The Pilgrim’s Progress an allegory

 Dryden – From 1660 to 1700 (Restoration) poet laurate focused on the achievements of humanity  Restoration Theater – noted for comedies  Alexander Pope – neoclassical style, exhibiting wit, elegance, and moderation The Rape of Lock  Jonathon Swift – Gulliver’s Travels critical of the merchant class  Other authors = Defoe, Addison, Steele, and Johnson  1800s will be an age of the language of everyday life, realistic

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