System of government •King or Queen has complete control over government & its people Autocracy Centralized Government Nation states •Monarchs based their claim on Divine Right Authority comes from God Similar to “Mandate of Heaven” •Monarchs are “Above the Law” •Common features- Strong armies,limited representative bodies, high taxes Breakdown of Feudalism/ Rise of Nation states Continuous Warfare Need for money Exploration Declining influence of the church Regulation of Religion & society Loss of power by nobility & legislatures New government Bureaucracies Huge building projects 1. What were 3 causes of Absolutism? 2. What were all the effects of Absolutism? The Hapsburg Monarchy 1556 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V divides empire Son Phillip II rules Spain, Netherlands & Italy 3. Watch the video a. Explain how Phillip got his power b. Why was the Spanish Armada defeated c. What were some of the economic problems Spain faced? d. What were some political problems? e. What info is there about Phillip? f. How is Phillip remembered? g. Identify and explain the issues Spain had during Phillip’s reign. Promoted “Golden age of Spain” •Wealth from colonies helped buildup military •Defender of Catholicism 1588-Spanish Armada defeated by England (Elizabeth I) 1600’s Spain power declines Financial problems The Bourbon Monarchy •Henry IV increases power of Govt. & decreases power of nobility •Louis the XIII strengthens & builds up military Cardinal Richelieu subdues nobles & Huguenots Known as “The Sun King” Ruled for 72 years •Mercantilist policies •Built the strongest army in Europe •Expanded bureaucracy •Never called the Estates General •Persecuted the Huguenots French Protestants 4. Who was Henry IV and what did he do? 5. Who was Louis XIV and what did he do? 6. Define Huguenots. •Built Lavish palace @ Versailles “Gilded Cage” for nobility His successors inherited enormous debts (costly Wars & extravagance) 7. Pretend you are a peasant in France under Louis the XIV reign and you visit the lavish palace of Versailles. Your family has only had bread and broth to eat for a week. Explain in 5-7 sentences how this makes you feel. 1480 Russian rulers drive Mongols out •Early Czars Ivan III & Ivan IV (Terrible) used harsh methods to unify Russia & strengthen Monarchy •1613 Michael Romanov begins Romanov Dynasty •Grand Embassy tour Toured Europe learning new technologies •Westernization/Modernization •Introduced western ideas •Laws, technology, culture •Built largest army in Europe Won territory along the Baltic Sea St. Petersburg becomes “Window to the West” Major trading port & new capital Centralized power Reduced power of the nobility Brought Orthodox Church under his control 8. What did Ivan the Terrible do while in power? 9. What did Peter the Great do to improve lives in Russia? 10. How did Peter the Great westernize Russia? 1215 King John forced to sign Magna Carta Limited King’s powers 1295 Edward I establishes Model Parliament Lawmaking body House of Lords & House of Commons Parliament successfully blocked attempted shifts to absolute rule The Tudor Monarchs(1485-1603) generally worked well w/ Parliament Ex. Henry VIII & Elizabeth I 12. What was the purpose of the Magna Carta? 13. What did the Model Parliament do to the Monarchy? 14. How did the Parliament keep the Monarchy in check? Had absolutist tendencies (Strong belief in Divine Right) James I & son Charles I Consistently clashed with Parliament over finance & foreign policy Angered Puritans Known as the Puritan Revolution (1643) Charles’s Cavaliers vs. Roundheads led by Oliver Cromwell Charles I is overthrown by forces loyal to Parliament beheaded in 1649 15. How did the Stuarts anger the Puritans? 16. What happened during the English Civil War? England became a Republic called the Commonwealth At first Cromwell & Parliament share power •1653 Cromwell assumes Title of Lord Protector & rules as a dictator Cromwell brutally put down revolts in Ireland & Scotland (Genocide) 17. Who was Cromwell and how was he important to England? 18. What happened to Cromwell after 1653? •Upon Cromwell’s death, Parliament restores Stuart Monarchy to throne •Charles II & James II became unpopular due to absolutist policies •Parliament fears return of Catholicism(James II) •Parliament overthrows James II & asks William & Mary to assume throne (Glorious Revolution) 1688-William & Mary forced to sign English Bill of Rights. Guarantees Parliament’s superiority over the Monarchy England becomes a Limited Monarchy (Remains today) 19. What happened after Cromwell’s death? 20. How does the monarchy change after William and Mary come to power? Last Question!!!!! Worth 5 points!!!!! 21. Explain how did the English Monarchy change from the Magna Carta to William and Mary’s reign.