Clinical applications key - Effingham County Schools

Endocrine System – Clinical Application
1. HGH, Steroids, EPO (Erythroprotein) “Blood doping”
2. HGH – Enlarges muscles, may cause cancer and lead
to carpal tunnel syndrome
Steroids – Increase muscle strength, damage organs
EPO – Increase oxygen delivery to muscles, may lead
to a heart attack.
1. Growth hormone, hypopituitary dwarfism.
2. Very small, may not develop adult sexual features.
Must begin before the bones completely ossify.
3. Gigantism
1. High blood glucose levels due to a deficiency of
2. Vision – Brain neurons are adversly affected due
to dehydration
Fat metabolism
3. Because of the high glucose levels in the blood, the
kidneys excrete the excess glucose.
Water follows glucose because of osmosis and this causes
dehydration and increases thirst.
4. Sweet smelling urine, weight loss, wounds cannot heal.
5. Type I (Insulin dependent) – Begins before age 20, not
enough insulin produced. Immune system attacks pancreatic beta
cells, destroy them and insulin cannot be secreted.
Type II (Insulin independent) – Usually begins after age 40,
cells lose insulin receptors and are less able to respond to insulin.
6. Genetically engineered from bacteria, pigs or cattle,
using patients’ stem cells to produce Islets of Langerhans.
7. Unable to gain weight because he couldn’t utilize sugar.
1. Addison’s disease
2. Adrenal cortex does not secrete hormones sufficiently
3. Loss of appetite, increased skin pigmentation, dehydration,
Low blood pressure, decreased blood sodium levels, fatigue,
Frequent infections.
4. A disorder caused by the hypersecretion of glucocorticoids.
5. Remover tumor from pituitary or partially or completely
remove adrenal glands.
6. Cushing Syndrome – 5 to 25 people per million,
Addison disease – 39-60 people per million.