Endocrine System – Clinical Application 1. HGH, Steroids, EPO (Erythroprotein) “Blood doping” 2. HGH – Enlarges muscles, may cause cancer and lead to carpal tunnel syndrome Steroids – Increase muscle strength, damage organs EPO – Increase oxygen delivery to muscles, may lead to a heart attack. 1. Growth hormone, hypopituitary dwarfism. 2. Very small, may not develop adult sexual features. Must begin before the bones completely ossify. 3. Gigantism 1. High blood glucose levels due to a deficiency of Insulin. 2. Vision – Brain neurons are adversly affected due to dehydration Fat metabolism 3. Because of the high glucose levels in the blood, the kidneys excrete the excess glucose. Water follows glucose because of osmosis and this causes dehydration and increases thirst. 4. Sweet smelling urine, weight loss, wounds cannot heal. 5. Type I (Insulin dependent) – Begins before age 20, not enough insulin produced. Immune system attacks pancreatic beta cells, destroy them and insulin cannot be secreted. Type II (Insulin independent) – Usually begins after age 40, cells lose insulin receptors and are less able to respond to insulin. 6. Genetically engineered from bacteria, pigs or cattle, using patients’ stem cells to produce Islets of Langerhans. 7. Unable to gain weight because he couldn’t utilize sugar. 1. Addison’s disease 2. Adrenal cortex does not secrete hormones sufficiently 3. Loss of appetite, increased skin pigmentation, dehydration, Low blood pressure, decreased blood sodium levels, fatigue, Frequent infections. 4. A disorder caused by the hypersecretion of glucocorticoids. 5. Remover tumor from pituitary or partially or completely remove adrenal glands. 6. Cushing Syndrome – 5 to 25 people per million, Addison disease – 39-60 people per million.