Lesson 2 Effect of exercise on diabetes

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Obesity and type 2 diabetes
• The relationship between
obesity and type 2
diabetes can be clearly
seen in japanese Sumo
wrestlers who are
massively obese and must
constantly over-eat to
maintain their size.
• The incidence of Type 2
diabetes amongst wrestlers
is 60% compared with just
5% of the general
population
Complications include poor circulation which may lead to
persistent ulceration and eventually require limbs to be amputated
Exercise reducing diabetes?
• Aerobic exercise prevents type 2 diabetes by
reducing body weight and body fat
• Note that improved insulin sensitivity is lost
around 7 days after the last exercise period
• That is one good reason to exercise every 3
days as recommended by health officials
Effect of exercise in prevention
and treatment of NIDDM
• Ability of cells to
uptake glucose from the
blood (insulin
sensitivity) is greater in
physically fit
individuals.
• A decrease in insulin
sensitivity with age can
be prevented by regular
exercise
Exercise-induced reduction in
insulin resistance
• Due to adaptations in skeletal muscle
• Increased capillary network and blood flow
• Increase in the sensitivity of existing insulin
receptors
• Enhanced glucose transport due to an
increase in number of insulin receptors on
muscle cell membrane
• Increased enzyme activity associated with
glucose storage
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