Viscera of the GI system and Abdomen

Spleen is an ovoid, purplish, delicate, vascular
mass about the size and shape of one’s fist.
It is covered with fibroelastic capsule on which it
is entirely sorrounded by peritonium except at
the hilum
Located at the left upper quadrant or L.
Most delicate organ and vulnerable organ,even
though it is protected by the lower thoracic ribs.
Although it is a mobile organ, it does not descend
below the costal region
It rests on the left colic fexure
Functions of spleen
Prenatally it was a hematopoitic organ,
In adults it functions as a site of
Lymphocyte proliferation,
Removing/destroying expended RBCs and
Recycling iron
Blood Resorvoir storing RBCs and platelets
It is sorrounded
anteriorly by stomach
Posteriorly, left part of
diaphragm,ribs 9-11
Inferiorly, left colic flexure
Medially, left kidney
connected to
the posterior wall of greater
curvature of stomach by
gastrospleenic ligament
Left kidney by splenorenal
Spleenic artery, the largest
branch of celiac trunk which
inturn divides into 5
branches to supply the
Severe blows on the left side,
Fracturing the ribs,
Blunt trauma to the abdomen
causing an increase in intraabdominal pressure
May cause the rupture of thin
capsule and peritonium
disrupting its soft
Spleenomegaly may result because of
spleenic disease or hypertension.
 Repair of a ruptured spleen is difficult. So
sub-total or total splenectomy is
performed to prevent profuse bleeding
and in cases of severe untreatable
 In adults, spleen is not a vital organ
Largest gland
After skin, largest
single organ.
It occupies the R.
and it extends into
epigastric region
and also the L.
Functions of liver
In the late fetus, it serves as a
hematopoietic organ.
In adults,
 Production and secretion of bile
 Filtration of blood removing bacteria,
metabolizing various foreign substances
and detoxifying
 Stores glycogen
The liver L. & R. lobes by
falciform ligament
quadrate lobe
and a caudate lobe by the
presence of
gallbladder,fissure of
ligamentum teres and
inferior vena cava in the
These are functional lobes
which have separate R. &
L. branches of hepatic
artery, portal vein and the
hepaic ducts
Porta hepatis,
hilum of liver
opens on the
surface and lies
between the
caudate and
quadrae lobes
Liver has dual blood supply.
 The hepatic artery brings oxygenated
blood to the liver and
 the portal vein brings venous blood rich in
products of digestion.
The liver is made up of liver
 The central vein of each lobule
is a tributary of the sinusoids.
 In spaces between lobules are
portal canals, which contains
the brances of hepatic artery,
portal vein and a tributary of
bile duct.
 The hepatic artery and portal
venal blood passes thru
sinusoids, which are ultimately
drained into central vein.
Interlobar tributaries of the bile ducts,
situated in the portal canals receive bile
from canaliculi
 R.hepaic duct drains from R.lobe and
L.hepatic duct from L., caudate and
quadrate lobes
 R. and L. ducts emerge thru the porta
hepatis and join into common hepatic duct
which joins with the cystic duct from the
gall bladder to form the bile duct
The bile duct
enters into the
duodenum thru
ic ampulla
(ampulla of
vater) which is
guarded by
sphinchter of
Gall Bladder
Gall bladder is a
pear-shaped sac
lying on the
undersurface of
 Gall bladder
stores and
concenterates bile
When digestion does not happen, the
sphincter of oddi remains closed and the
bile accumulates in the gall bladder.
 The fatty foods entry into duodenum
stimulates the contraction of the gall
bladder and relaxation of sphincter of oddi
which causes the emptying of bile.
Cystic artery, a
branch of R.
hepatic artery
supplies the gall
Pancreas is an elongated gland that lies in
the epigastrium and the left upper
 Pancreas is both an exocrine and
endocrine glandular function
 Exocrine gland secretes pepsin and other
enzymes which hydrolyzes proteins
 Endocrine gland secretes insulin and
glucagon which plays a key role in
carbohydrate metabolism.
The hepatic duct joins with the bile duct
and opens into the ampulla of vater.
 The splenic and the superior and inferior
pancreaticoduodenal arteries supply the
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