Ms. Smith 8th Grade Social Studies Chapter 4 Ancient Egypt Chapter 4 Vocabulary 1. Delta – a fan-shaped area of fertile land where most ancient Egyptians lived. 2. Cataracts – shallow water rapids of the Nile River that protected the Egyptians from foreign invasion. Chapter 4 Vocabulary 3. Shadoof – a machine that lifted water from the Nile and placed it in the basins. 4. Basin – Bowl shaped holes. 5. Menes (Narmer) – United Upper and Lower Egypt in about 3100 B.C. Chapter 4 Vocabulary 6. Farming – the main occupation (job) of Ancient Egyptians. 7. Pharaoh – Ruler of Ancient Egypt. Was considered a ruler, priest, and a god. Center of Egyptian life. Ruled the Earth. Chapter 4 Vocabulary 8. Pyramids – Great tombs built for Pharaoahs to protect them from floods, wild animals, and robbers. 9. Hapi – Egyptian river god. 10. Ra – Egyptian sun god. Chapter 4 Vocabulary 11. Osiris – early Pharaoh who gave Egyptians laws and taught them farming. God of the harvest and eternal life. 12. Isis – wife of Osiris. Ruled over the dead. 13. Underworld – where all souls went after death. Chapter 4 Vocabulary 14. Book of the Dead – special book that contained magic spells needed for life after death. 15. Embalming – process to preserve the bodies of the dead. At first, only pharaohs, but later others.