must be a coherent set of
links between techniques and
The actions are the techniques
and the thoughts are the
 Diane
Larson-Freeman is a
Professor of Education and the
Director of the English Language
Institute at the University of
Michigan. She has been a teacher
educator for 25 years and has
published a number of books and
articles in the areas of second
language acquisition research,
English grammar, language
teaching methods, and teacher
1- Goals of this book.
2- Thought-in-Action-Links.
3- Layout of chapters.
Techniques (actions)
Method: the link between
actions and thoughts
 To
learn about many different language
 To help you uncover the thoughts that
guide your actions.
 To introduce you to a variety of techniques.
 We
learn about the methods by entering a
classroom where each method is being
 In this book, each chapter deals with one
language teaching method. However, in a few
chapters, a more general approach to
language teaching is described, so one or
more methods that are examples of the
approach are described.
 In
this book, we will observe the
techniques the teacher is using and his or
her behavior (experience). After that, we
will infer the principles on which the
teacher’s behavior and techniques are
based. After we have identified the
principles, we will answer the following
ten questions.
are the goals of
teachers who use this
method or that method?
is the role of the
teacher? What is the role
of the students?
are some
characteristics of the
teaching/learning process?
is the nature of the
student-teacher interaction?
What is the nature of the
student-student interaction?
are the feeling of the
students dealt with?
is language viewed?
How is culture viewed?
areas of language are
What language skills are
is the role of the
student’s native language?
is evaluation
does the teacher
respond to student errors?
 At
the end of each chapter are two types of
- The first type allows you to check your initial
understanding of the method presented.
The second type of exercise asks you to make
the connection between what you understand
about a method and your own teaching
 At
the end of each chapter are two types of
- The first type allows you to check your initial
understanding of the method presented.
The second type of exercise asks you to make
the connection between what you understand
about a method and your own teaching
• In language teaching, approach is a set of
assumptions dealing with the nature of
language teaching and learning. It describes the
nature of the subject matter to be taught…
• Method is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of
language material, no part of which contradicts, and all
of which is based upon, the selected approach. An
approach is axiomatic, a method is procedural.
 Method is the level at which theory is put into practice
and at which choices are made about the particular skills
to be taught, the content to be taught, and the order in
which the content will be presented;
• Within one approach there can be many methods.
A technique is implementational – that which
actually takes place in a classroom. It is used to
accomplish an immediate objective. Techniques
must be consistent with a method, and therefore
in harmony with an approach as well.
 Technique is the level at which classroom
procedures are described.
 Eg. reading aloud, listening to the tape,
discussion, translation …
What’s their relation?
 For approach, method, and technique,
which determines which?
 An approach determines method, in turn,
a method determines technique.
 The arrangement is hierarchical. The
organizational key is that techniques carry
out a method which is consistent with an
The grammar- translation method of
foreign language teaching is one of the
most traditional methods.
 It was originally used to teach ‘dead’
languages (and literatures) such as Latin
and Greek, involving little or no spoken
communication or listening
To read and translate literary
masterpieces and classics.
A focus on learning the rules of grammar and
their application in translation passages from one
language into the other
 Vocabulary in the target language is learned
through direct translation from the native
language. e.g.
the house = la casa
the mouse = el ratÓn
Readings in the target language are translated
directly and then discussed in the native language.
Grammar is taught with extensive explanations in
the native language, and only later applied in the
production of sentences through translation from
one language to the other. e.g:
Do you have my book? = ………………………….
I don’t know where your book is = ………………….
Students will be able to read literature written in
the target language
Students will be able to translate from one
language to another
It Helps students to develop reading and writing
To help students read and appreciate foreign
language literature
Students can become more familiar with the
grammar of their native language also write and
speak their native language better
Helpful for mental exercise
Literary language is superior to the spoken
language. Students study literature and fine arts.
 Translating each language into each other is an
important goal for learners.
 The authority in the classroom is the teacher.
 The ability to communicate with the target
language is not among the goals of instruction.
 The
primary skills to be improved are
reading and writing.
 Its focus is on accuracy (grammatical correctness)
and not fluency.
 Ss should be conscious of the
grammatical rule of the target language.
The structures of the foreign languages are best
learned when compared and contrasted with those
of mother tongue.
 It’s important for ss to learn about the form of the
target language.
 It provides good mental exercise through
memorizing vocabulary.
 Deductive application of an explicit grammar rule
is a useful technique. (rule
1. Translation of a literary passage
› Students will be asked to read a literary
passage and then translate the target
language into their native language
› Translation may be written or spoken
› Translation made by the students can show
that they understand their meaning
Reading comprehension questions
› Students answer these questions in the target
› Answers to the questions may be:
Contained in the
Related to
Antonyms / synonyms
› Students are asked to find antonyms in the
reading passage or, to define a set of words
based on their understanding of them as
they occur in the reading passage
› Recognize cognates by learning the spelling
or sound patterns that correspond between
the language
› Students also asked to memorize words that
look like cognates but have meanings in the
target language that are different from
those in the native language
Deductive application of rule
› It is important for students to learn about the
forms(grammar rules) of the target language
› Grammar rules are presented with examples
› Students are asked to apply the rules on
examples they are given
Fill in the blank
› Teacher give students sentences with word
› Students should fill in the blanks with the new
vocabulary or with a particular grammar
› Students are asked to memorize new words,
grammatical rules, and verb conjugation
Use the words in sentences
› Students are asked to make up sentences
with the new words they learn in the text
› This technique can show whether students
really understand the new words
› Students are asked to write a composition in
the target language
› The topic is based on some aspect of the
reading passage
An effective way for application of
grammar and sentence structure
Teacher’s labor is saved.
 Phraseology of the target language is
quickly explained through translation.
 Least stressful for students as they use
their native language.
Wrong idea of what language is.
Unnatural method. It starts with the teaching of reading
not listening.
Speech is neglected as it lays emphasis on reading and
It does not give pattern practice.
Less learners’ motivation
Create frustration for learners